Adam Smith

(Biography)

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Adam Smith Biography In Hindi

 

Adam Smith Books List

The Wealth of Nations Book By Adam Smith - 1776
The Theory of Moral Sentiments By Adam Smith - 1759
Essays on Philosophical Subjects By Adam Smith - 1795
lectures on jurisprudence By Adam Smith - 1976
The Essential Adam Smith By Adam Smith - 1986
the glasgow edition of the works and correspondence of adam smith
The wisdom of Adam Smith By Adam Smith - 1976
The correspondence of Adam Smith
Lectures on rhetoric and belles lettres By Adam Smith
The Invisible Hand By Adam Smith
Selections from The wealth of nations By Adam Smith - 1957
an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations By Adam Smith
adam smith moral and political philosophy By Adam Smith
A catalogue of the library of Adam Smith
Essays, philosophical and literary By Adam Smith - 1869
The theory of moral sentiments, or By Adam Smith - 1774
Other People's Shoes - By Adam Smith - 2008
Essay on colonies By Adam Smith
The Wealth of Nations Volume 1 By Adam Smith
Long Walk to Valhalla By Adam Smith
Bootleggers & Baptists: How Economic By Adam Smith
Beautiful Brutality: The Family Ties at By Adam Smith
saturn fatal attraction By Adam Smith - 2007
Cumbernauld Through Time By Adam Smith
an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations By Adam Smith - 1776
The early writings of Adam Smith - 1748

Adam Smith the most important person in the progress of economic theory was born on 5th June 1723 in Kirkcaldy fife Scotland. He was an political philosopher. In his younger age he admission in Oxford university. He was a philosophy teacher between 1751 to 1764. in Glasgow university. During these years his first book has and outstanding teacher. While his everlasting famous depends upon his great authorship “The wealth of nation” which published in 1776. And recently it got a great focus of experts. He got respect and famousity due to this. Adam weren’t the first person who investigate for economic theory. And he didn’t deformated many famous theories him selves. But he was the first person who presented regular economical theory which is really play as role of base in future of this field. Due to this we may say “The wealth of nation” is initial point of political economics. He also optimized many faults of past due to this book. He also dismiss the old traders theory. He rejected the theory or idea logy of states, by whom real wealth is any thing else not hard work. He increased the possible yield which is possible due to distributions of hard work. His noble idea were invisible hand, classical economic, modern free market and division of labor. He died on 17th July 1790 at the age of 67th in Edinburgh Scotland. In this page you will find and read adam smith biografia.

Mashi nazarya ki paishe raft me aham tarin shakhsiyat adam smithscotland ke qasbe kark kalde me 1723 me paida hua. Nojawani me wo oxford university me dakhil hua. 1751 se 1764 tak wo glasko university me falsafa ka ustad raha. Is doran me us ki pehli kitab “ikhlaqi jazbat ka nazarya” shaa hui jis ne use ulma ki sif me ek mumtaz muqam dya. Tahum us ki zawal shohrat ka inhasar us ki azim tansif “aqwam alim ki dolat ki noiyat or wajuhat ki tehqiq” pr hai jo 1776 me manzare aam pr aai. Foran hi us ne nazrin ki tawaja hasil ki. Baqi tamam umar us ne usi se shohrat or ezat pai. 1790 me kark kaldi me fot hua. Us ne mujrid zindagi guzari.

Mashi nazarya ke lye tehqiq karne walon me adam smithpehla aadmi nahi tha. Na hi us se beshtar marof nazaryat khud us ke ikhtara karda hain. Lekin wo pehla aadmi tha jis ne jama or baqaida nazarya mashiyat paish kya. Jo haqiqatan is shobe me mustaqbil ki taraqi ki bunyad sabit hua. Is waja se ye kehna baja hai k “dolat aqwam alim” siyasi mashiyat ke jadid ilm ka nuqtae agaz hai.

Is kitab ke asarat me se ek yun hai k us ne mazi ki mutadid galat fehmion ko aslah ki. Smith ne qadim tajirana nazarya rad kya jis me aesi riyasat ki afadiyat pr israr tha jis ke pas bepayan sone ke zakhair hon. Isi tor is kitab me riyasat pasandon ke nuqta nazar ka bhi istardad kya gya jis ke mutabiq zamin asal dolat hai is ki bajae smith ne mehnat ki bunyadi ahmiyat pr israr kya. Us ne paidawar me mumkina had tak izafe pr zor dya jo taqsim mehnat ki badolat hi mumkin hai us ne in tamam hakumati daqyanoshi or bezabta bandishon pr bhi jirah ki jo sanati taraqi ki rah me hail thin.

Dolat aqwam alim ka bunyadi khyal ye hai k bazahir muntashar khuli mandi ek khud kafil nizam hai jo khud bakhud is noh ki or is miqdar me ashya paida karne lagiti hai jis ki logon ko zarorat ho or jis ki mang zyada ho. Misal ke tor pr hum farz karte4 hain k kisi matloba she ki rasd kam hai. Qudrati tor pr is ki qimat barhe gi jitni qimat barhe gi is ki paidawar karne walon ka munafa bhi barhe ga. Is zyada munafa ke sabab digar sanat kar is shobe ko zyada se zyada paida karen ge. Paidawar me ye izafa haqiqi qilat ko khatam kar de ga. Mazid barhan barhi hui rasd mukhtalif sanat karon ke bich musabqat ke bais is she ki qimat ko ghata kar asal darja pr le aae gi. Jo k darasal us ki paidawar ki lagat ke brabar hai. Kisi ne is qilat ko khatam karne me mashre ki aanat nahi ki. Lekin masla phir bhi hal ho gya. Smith ke alfaz me har shakhs “sirf apne munafe pr nazar rakhe hue hai” lekin wo “ kisi gair mari taqat ke sabab ek aese maqsad ki janib rawan hai jo khud us ki mansha ka jazo nahi hai. Khud apne maqasid ki takmil ke lye wo amomi mashre ki behtri me aesa mosar kirdar ada karta jesa shayad tab bhi us ke lye mumkin na ho jab wo umdan aesa karna chahe” (dolat aqwam alim, jild 4th, bab 2nd).

Ye gair mari qowat tab bebas ho jati hai agar azadana tijarti masabqat pr bandishen aid ki jaen. Smith azad tijarat ke haq me tha. Us ne kasir mehsolat pr sakht jirah ki. Us ki bunyadi tanqid karobar or azad mandi me hakumat ki madakhalat beja pr thi. Aesi madakhalat takriban hamesha mashi istadad kar ko mutasir karti hai or qimaton ki girani ki sorat me muntaj hoti hai. (smith ne “lasissey faire” ki istalah ikhtara nahi ki. Tahum is khyal ki tashir me us ka kirdar sab se aham raha).

Chand logon ka khyal hai k adam smithmehaz karobari tabqa ka himayati tha. Tahum ye khyal durst nahi hai. Us ne barhan sakht alfaz me karobri ajara darana sargarmion pr tarz kya or in ke khatme pr israr bhi. Na hi wo haqiqi karobari mamlat se bebehra tha. Zel me dolat aqwam alim se ek khas iqtabas dya ja raha hai “ ek hi shobe ke log shazhi baham mil bethte hain jabke un ki guftago ya ya awam ke khilaf kisi sazish pr muntaj hoti hai ya qimaton me grani ki kisi hikmat amli pr”.

So is khobi ke sath adam smithne apne mashi nazaryati nizam ko marbot andaz me paish kya k chand dhaion me hi qadim mashi nazaryat makatib fikar ka adam qarar pae. Darasal un ke sabhi aham nukat adam smithne apne andar samo lye the or baqaida andaz me un ke maib ko ashkar kya tha.smith ke perokaron me thoms malthas or deud recordo jese aham maishatdan shamil the jinhon ne mashi tasawerat ko tabdil kye bagair is ke nizam ki tasrih or tashih ki or ise wo sorat di jo aaj clasici mashiyat ke nam se jani jati hai. Agarcha jadid nazarya mashiyat ne is ne naye tasawerat or tariqa haekar ka izafa kya hai tahum ye classici mashiyat ki fitri namo thi.

Dolat aqwam alim me smith ne ek had tak kasir abadi pr malthas ke nazaryat ki bhi paishan goi kar di thi. Tahum recordo or marks dono ka israr tha k abadi ka dabao ajraton ko amom mashi darja se barhne nahi deta (use ajraton ka nam nehad ahini qanon kaha jata hai). Smith ne wazah kya k paidawar ki barho tiri ki sorat me ajraton me bhi izafa hota hai. Bilkul isi tor waqyat ne sabit kya k is nuqta pr adam smithdurst tha jabke recordo or marks galat the.

Smith ki nuqta nazar ki dursti ke sawal ya bad ke nazarya sazon pr is ke asarat se qata nazar aham bat ye hai k qanon sazi or hakumati hikmat amlion pr in ke asarat kis noiyat ke the? Dolat aqwam alim bari mashaqi or sarahat ke sath likhi gai. Karobar or tijarti amor me hakumati amd madakhalat kam mehsolat or azad tijarat ke haq me us ke nuqta nazar ne 19th sadi ke doran hakumati hikmat amlion pr ghehre asarat muratab kye. Aaj bhi un asarat ko mehsos kya ja sakta hai.

Mashi nazarya smith ke bad mutadid tabdilion se guzra hai or us ke chand nazaryat matrok bhi ho chuke hain. Adam smithki ahmiyat ko ghatana agarcha dushwar nahi hai. Lekin haqiqat to ye hai k mashiyat ko ek munazam ilm ki sorat dene wala bunyadi shakhs

Wahi hai. Is aetabar se insani fitri tarikh me us ka shumar aham shakhsiyat me hota hai.
 
Adam Smith
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