Charles Darwin Biography

 
Home Biography<<

charles robert darwin scientist - charles robert darwin inventions - charles robert darwin contribution - charles robert darwin discoveries - charles darwin biography - charles darwin books - charles darwin books list - charles darwin life - charles darwin life and death

Charles Darwin Biography

Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 and died on 19 April 1882. He was an English naturalist, Darwin interest in nature led his to neglect medical studies, he also help to investigate marine invertebrates. In this page you will find and read Charles Darwin biography in urdu hindi and romanuUrdu.

charles darwin height: 5 Feet 11 1/2 Inches

Charles darwin's wife's name: Emma Darwin

charles darwin children:

  1. Anne Darwin (Daughter)
  2. Henrietta Litchfield (Daughter)
  3. Mary Eleanor Darwin (Daughter)
  4. Elizabeth Darwin (Daughter)
  1. George Darwin (Son)
  2. Francis Darwin (Son)
  3. Leonard Darwin (Son)
  4. William Erasmus Darwin (Son)
  5. Horace Darwin (Son)
  6. Charles Waring Darwin (Son)

Charles Darwin Books

 
  • On The origin Of Species By Means Of Natural Selection
  • The Voyage Of The Beagle
  • The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication
  • The Autobiography Of Charles Darwin
  • The Expression Of The Emotions in Man And Animals
  • On The Movements And Habits Of Climbing Plants
  • The Formation Of Vegetable Mould Through The Action Of Worms
  • Fertilisation Of Orchids
  • The Structure And Distribution Of Coral Reefs
  • On Evolution
  • The Effects Of Cross And Self Fertilisation In The Vegetable Kingdom
  • Insectivorous Plants
  • On Natural Selection
  • Darwin
  • Metaphysics Materialism And The Evolution Of Mind
  • The Essential Darwin
  • Evolution
  • Origins

Life Story

Fitri intekhab ke tariqe se hone wale azoyati irtaqa ka nazarya paish karne wala charles darwin 12 february 1809 ko englistan ke shehar shrewsbury me paida hua ( aen usi roz ibraham lankabn ki bhi pedaish hui ). Sola baras ki umar me wo tib ke mutale ke lye aedan barg university me dakhil hua. Tahum use tib or ilmul aza dono hi bekaif ilm mehsos hue. Thore hi arsa bad wo cambrej muntaqil ho gya. Cembrj me use ghor sawari or chand mari jese parhne se kahin zyada mawafiq malom hue. Tahum wo apne ek professor ko itna mutasir karne me kamyab ho gya k H-M-Sbegel ke tehqiqi dore me mahir ilm physic ki hesiyat se us ka taqrar ho gya. Is taqriri ko qabol kar lene pr charles ke bap n us ki mukhalifat bhi ki. Us ka khyal tha k is tarha ka sersapata nojawan ko kisi bhi sanjida kaam ke agaz ko mokhar kar dene ka bahana fraham kare ga. Khush qismati se bap ko is amar pr razi kar lya gya k wo use safar pr jane ki ijazat de. Bad azsan ye behri dora magribi dunya ki science ki tarikh me gran baha sabit hui.

1831 me 22 baras ki umar me darwin begel ke sath safar pr rawana hua. Agle 5 barso me begel ne dunya ke gird chakar lagaya. Bare sakon k sath wo janobi america ke sahilon pr kinare kinare chalta raha. Dor daraz gila pagoz jaziron pr thqiqi kaam kya behre alkahil ke digar jaziron ki sair ki. Wo behre arab or jonobi behre oqyanos bhi gya. Is tawil waqfa ke safar me darwin ne bare fitri ajaibat ka mushahida kya qadim qabail se mulaqat ki bari tadad me fosils daryaft kye or beinteha anwa ke podon or hewanon ka mushahida kya. Mazid baran wo apne mushahidat ko tafsilan likhta raha. In hawalajat ne us ki bad ki tamam tehriron ke lye ek asas muhaiya ki. Inhi se us ne apne kai ek bunyadi nazaryat ko wzah kya. Inhi se use wo thos shwahid bhi fraham hue jinhon ne us ke nazaryat ko is darja maqbole aam banaya.

1836 me darwin ghar lota. Agle 20 barason me us ne kitabon ka ek silsila tehrir kya jinho ne englistan me use mumtaz mahirin hayatiyat ki sif me la khara kya. 1837 ke awail me hi darwin is khyal pr mutafiq ho gya k hewani or nabatiyati anwa gair lachak pazir hain balke ye tibqatul arza ki tarikh me tawil arsa me irtaqa pazir huin. Us dor me use ye andaza nahi tha k is irtaqa ke nataij kya ho sakte the? 1838 me us ne thoms malthas ka maqala banwan “abadi ke qawanin pr ek maqala” parha. Is mazmon se use is nazarya ka ishara mila k tanazaul baqa ke natije me fitri intekhab amal me ata hai. tahum fitri intekhab ke asol ki tashkil sazi ke bawajud us ne apne nazaryat ki ashaat me ujlat na barti use ahsas tha k is nazarya se shadid tanazat paida ho jaen ge so us ne ek tawil arsa ahtiyat se shwahid akhate karne or apne mafroze ke haq me dalail ko tartib dene me sarf kya.

1842 ke awail me us ne apne nazarye ka ek khaka likha. 1844 tak ek kitab likhta raha. Tahum june 1858 me jab darwin abhi apni azim kitab me taramim or izafa kar raha tha, use alfardrsil wilas ka ek masoda mosol hua (wo mashriqi indies me muqim ek angrez mahir physic tha.) wilas me irtaqa pr apna nazarya bayan kyat ha. Kisi aetabar se wilas ka nazarya darwin se mukhtalif nahi tha. Wilas ne apna nazarya kalyatan azadana tor pr wzah kya tha or masoda chapwane se pehle ek mumtaz scientist ki rae lene ki garz se use bhejwaya tha. Ye ek parishan kun sorate hal thi. Jo boht asani se sabqat le jane ki kashmakash me tabdil ho sakti thi. Agle mahine wilas ke maqale or darwin ki kitab ke khake ko ek mushtarka mazmon ki sorat me ek sceinci tanzim ke robaro paish kya.

Ia mushtarka paishkash pr kisi ne koi khas tawaja na di. Tahum agle baras darwin ki kitab “ofrensh anwa” shaa hui. Jis ne ek inqalab barpa kya. scienci mozoat pr chapne wali kisi bhi kitab ki nasbat is kitab ko zyada bare tabqa ne shadid josh or jazbe ke sath mozao behas banaya. Is logon me scientist bhi shamil the or awam bhi. Behas ke moat kuch yun the (1) fitri intekhab ke tawast se ofrensh anwa ya (2) tanazul baqa me mutakhab anwa ka irtaqa. 1871 me mubahis ki garma garmi abhi zoron pr thi jab darwin ne “insan ka zawal” or “ intekhab balehaz jins” ke unwan se kitab shaa ki. Is kitab me jis me ye nazarya paish kya gya k insan ka irtaqa Bandar numa makhloq se hua in mubahis me jalte pr tel chitakre ka kaam kya.

Apne nazaryat pr hone wale in awami mubahis me Darwin ne koi hisa na lya. Jis ki ek waja to ye thi k begel k safar se wapisi ke bad se us ki sehat dursat nahi rahi thi (ye arza use janobi america me nanhe kiron ke katne se lahiq hua tha). Irtaqa ke nazarya ke hamion ke pas thoms-h-haksly ki sorat me ek mashaq manzira baz or darwin ke nazaryat ka pur josh muhafiz mojud tha. 1882 me us ki wafat ke waqt aham scientists ki aksaryat darwin ke nazaryat ki durasti pr eman la chuke the.

Darwin anwa ke irtaqa ke nazatyaka bani nahi tha chand ahbab us se qabal ye mafrozat paish kar chuke the. Jin me francici mahir physic zan lemark or charles ke dada arasmas darwin shamil the. Lekin in mafrozat ne scienci dunya me kabhi qabole aam hasil na kya q k un ke dai kabhi in ahwal ki qabile itminan tozih na paish kar sake jin ke tehat irtaqa ka amal hua. Darwin ka karnama asal me ye tha k us ne na sirf fitri intekhab ka pura nizam paish kya jis ke zarye irtaqa waqoh pazir hua balke apne mafroze ke haq me kafi zyada dalail or brahin bhi fraham kye.

Ye bat paishe nazar rehni chahye k darwin ne apne nazarya ki tashkil ilm khalq (geneties) se istafada ya yun kehye k is se kuch agahi hasil kye bagair ki. Darwin ke dor me koi is bare me kuch ilm nahi rakhta tha k kis ajib tariqe se khas osaf ek nasal se dosri nasal me muntaqil hote hain. Har chand k inhin barson me jab darwin apni hangama khez kitaben likh or chap raha tha greger mendel ne warsat ke qawanin pr kaam shuru kar dya tha. Mendel ka kaam, jo darwin ke kaam se beinteha mawafiq tha 1900 tak ahel ilm ki tawaja hasil nahi kar saka. Jabke tab darwin ke nazaryat ne har taraf dhom macha di thi. Son irtaqa ke mutaliq hamara jadid ilm jo wirasat ke khalqi marahil ko fitri intekhab kea mal se marbot karta hai darwin ke tajwiz karda nazarya se kahin zyada mukamal hai.

Insani fikar pr darwin ke asarat boht ghehre hain. Khalistan science nuqta nigah se us ne hayatiyat ke ilm me inqalab barpa kar dya. Fitri intekhab ek alamgir asol hai is asol ko digar medanon me bhi muntabiq karne ki wasi ki gai jese ilm asare qadima, imraniyat, siyasiyat or mashiyat.      

Tahum us ke scienci or imraniyati mafhom se kahin zyada aham bat wo asarat hain jo darwin ke nazaryat ne mazhabi fikar pr sabt kye. Darwin ke dor me or us ke bad kai salon tak beshtar raskhul aqida esaiyon ka khyal tha k darwin ke nazaryat ki qaboliyat se murad mazhabi aqaid ki behurmati hai. un ka khof galiban bajawaz tha halanke ye wazah hai k mazhabi josh or jazbe ke amomi inhatat me us ke elawa bhi mutadad awamil ne aham kirdar ada kya. (darwin khud la adri ban gya).

Ek ladini satah pr bhi darwin ke nazaryat ne dunya ke mutaliq insani nuqtae nazar me azim tagirat barpa kye. Bani no insane ko man hesul majmo ashya ke fitri nizam me ab wesa markazi muqam hasil nahi raha tha jis se ye pehle mustafid tha. Ab hum digar beshumar anwa hayat me se ek anwa the. Hamen is imkan se sirf nazar nahi karna chahye k kisi roz koi no hum pr bartari hasil kar sakti hai. darwin ki tehriron ke natije me hery klets ke is maqala ne k “siwae tabdili ke koi she hatmi nahi hai” qabol aam hasil kya. insan ke agaz se mutaliq amomi tozih ki hesiyat se irtaqa ke nazarya ki kamyabi se is aqide ko zyada mazbot bunyadon pr istawar kya k science me tamam tibi sawalon ka jawab dene ki ahliyat mojud hai( lekin afsos k sabhi insani masail ka jawab nahi). Darwin ki istalahat jese “baqae aslah” ( struggle for survival) or “baqa barae behtrin”n hamari amomi lagat ka hisa ban gain.

Zahir hai agar darwin paida hi na hota, ye nazaryat tab bhi mariz wajud me ajate. Darhaqiqat wilas ki missal ek aesi haqiqat hai jis ki bunyad pr ye bat kisi bhi dosri azim shakhsiyat ki nasbat darwin pr zyada sad ati hai. behre kef ye darwin ki tehriren hi thin jinho ne hayatiyat or ilm asare qadima me inqalabi tarmim paida kin or dunya me insan ke muqam or kirdar ko badal kar rakh dala.
 
Charles Darwin Biography In Hindi
Shanimuzik