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Ernest Rutherford was born on 30 August 1871 in New Zealand. He was famous physician of his time who gave us the concept of the half life of radioactive element also told about the radioactivity, Ernest Rutherford was also explained the alpha and beta rays. He was died on 19 October 1937. In this page you will find and read ernest rutherford gold foil experiment.
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Ernest Rutherford (atomic theory)

(ernest rutherford profile)

 

Birth Date : 30 August 1871

Death Date : 19th October 1937

Ernest Rutherford ko amomi tor pr 20th sadi ka azim tajurbati mahir physician mana jata hai. radioactivity pr hamare ilm me izafa karne wali shakhsiyat me se Rutherford boht mumtaz hai. usi ne nucleyai physic ke mutala kaagaz kya. Nazaryati hawale se apni bepayan waqat ke elawa us ki daryaften bhi mukhtalif alno istamalat me lai ja rahi hain jin me nucleyai hathyaron, nucleyai tawanai ke mansube, radioactivity ki nishandahi karne wale alat, or radioactivity ka shumaryati hisab. Dunya pr us ke asarat boht ghehre hain hanoz namu pa rahe hain or dair tak bar qarar rahen ge.

Rutherford newzeland me paida hua., wahin pala barha, us ne contebary collage me dakhla lya or wahan se BA, MA,or Bsc ki degree hasil kin. Jabke us ki umar abhi 23 baras thi. Agle hi baras us ko englistan ke cembrej university ke lye wazifa mila. Jahan us ne ek talib ilm ke hesiyat se J.J thompsan ki zere nigrani 3 baras tehqiq ki. J.J thompsan us dor ke mumtaz scientists me shumar hota tha. 27 baras ki umar me mekgul university (ceneda) me physic ka professor ban gya. Jahan wo 9 baras raha. 1907 me wo englistan me monchister university ke physic department ka sadar ban kar wapas aya. 1919 me wo phir se cembrej university me aya. Or “kewendish libortory” ka director ban gya. Zindagi ke baqya baras us ne yahin guzare.
1896 me francici scientist aentonio henry yabkiorel ne pehli bar radioactivity  ko daryaft kya, jab wo urinium ke compound pr kuch tajurbat kar raha tha. Tahum yabkiorel ki is mozo me dilchaspi jald hi khatam ho gai. Is shobe me hamare beshtar ilm ki zimedar Rutherford ki scienci tehqiqat hi hain. (meri or peri kiory ne do mazid radioactive element daryaft kye  plonium or redium tahun inhon ne oi qabil zikar ahmiyat ki daryaften nahi kin).
Rutherford ki ibtadai daryafton me se ek ye thi k urinium se kharij hone wali radioactivity do bilkul mukhtalif element pr mushtamil hoti hai jinhen us ne alpha or beta rays ka nam dya. Bad azan us ne har do element ki huiyat tarkibi ki wazahat ki (wo sarihul raftar ajza pr mushtamil hote hain) us ne sabit kya k ek tisra element bhi hai or wo gamma rays hain.
Radioactivity ki ek aham khasusiyat us me shamil tawanai ka ansar hai. yabkeorel or kevry or digar scientists ka khayal tha k tawanai ka manba kahin kharij me tha. Lekin Rutherford ne sabit kya k us me shamil tawanai jo kemiyai tamulat me kharij hone wali tawanai ki miqdar se kahin barh kar hai, har urinium atom ke dakhil se kharij hoti hai. is tor us ne atomic energy ka aham tasaer pesh kya.
Scientists ka hamesha ye khayal raha k atom naqabile taqsim or gair tagir pazir hote hain. Tahum Rutherford ne (apne nehayat honehar nojawan mawon fredrek sody ki shirakat se )ye sabit kya k jab atom se alpha or bta rays kharij hoti hai to ye ek mukhtalif no ke atom me dhal jata hai. ibtadai chemists ke lye ye naqabile yakin tasawer tha. Lekin Rutherford or sody ne radioactivity ke tajurbat ke ek silsila pr kaam kya or “nisf zindagi” jesa waqi tasawer waza kya. Jis se jald hi radioactivity ko shumar karne ka tariqa kar ikhtara kya gya. Ye intehai kar amad scienci ozaron ne shumar hota hai. or or ilm tabqatul arz, ilm asare qadima, ilm huiyat or digar alom me wasi maqasad ke lye istamal hota hai.
In heran kun daryafton ki bunyad pr Rutherford ko 1908 me nobel inam mila (bad azan sody ko bhi nobel inam mila). Tahum us ki sab se aham kamyabi bad me ronuma hui. Us ne mushahida kya k sarihul raftar alpha rays ke ajza ek barik talai warq me bilkul sidhe safar karte hain(jabke koi qabil adrak sorakh bhi paida nahi hota) halanke is safar se un me qadre kaj rawi bhi paida ho jati hai. is se use malom hua k sone ke atom jinhen mazi me scientist “bleird ke nanhe gendon” ki manind thos or gair mosul qarar dete the, darasal andar se ye gadaz the. Yun malom hota hai tha jese alpha ke nanhe thos ajza sone ke atoms me is tor guzar jate the jese pistol ki goli tezi se jelly me se guzar jati hai.
Rutherford ne do nojawan mawonen geger or marston ke sath kaam kar ke ye sabit kya k talai warq se takrate hue alpha ke chand ajza be tarha kajro ho jate hain. Balke chand ek uchal kar wapas piche ja parte hain. Rutherford ne is muqam pr ek bare waqya ke imkan ko bhanpa or is tajurba ko mutadid bar dhohraya. Or nehayat ahtiyat se har simt me mutashar hone wale ajza ka shumar kya. Tab ek nehayat dushwar magar ati tor pr qabile qabol riyaziyati tajziye se us ne sabit kya k in tajurbati nataij ko bayan karne ka faqat ek hi tariqa hai. sone ka atom andar se mukamal khokhla hota hai yani jab tamam dakhli mawad centre me ek nanhe nuclears me simat jata hai. ek hi dhachke me Rutherford ke mazmon (tiba 1911) ne hamari dunya ki feham aam ki tasver ki dhajyan bikhe den. Agar ek dhat ka tukra jo ek thos she hai ander se khokhla hai to phir har wo she jise hum mehkam taslim karte the, aese nanhe dhabon pr mushtamil hui jo ek bepayan khala me sargardan hain.
Rutherford ki atomic nucleas ki daryaft atomic structure ke mutaliq tamam jadid nazaryat ki bunyad hai. jab do sal bad neils bohar ne apne marof maqole me sabit kya k atom quantum mechanics ke tehat chalne wala ek mukhtasar tarin nizam hai to us ne Rutherford ke nucleyai atom ko apne namuna ka nuqta agaz qarar dya. Aesa hi watira hesenbarg or sharod nagar ne apnaya jab unhon ne sada mechanic or wave mechanics ke zarye apneintehai nafis atomi namume tashkil dye.
Rutherford ki daryaft se science ki ek nayi shakh ka bhi agaz hua nucleas ka ilm. Is shobe ka bhi Rutherford hi bani tha. 1919 me wo sarihul raftar alpha ke ajza ki bambari ke zarye nitrogen atom ke nucleas ko oxygen atom ke nucleas me tabdil karne me kamyab ho gya. Ye qadim chemists ke khawabon ko sharminda tabir karne me ek aham kamyabi thi. Jald hi is bat ka ahsas kya gya k ho sakta hai k nucleyai tabdiliyan suraj ki tawanai ka manba hon. Mazid barhan atomi nucleas ki tabdili ko tehrik dena atomi hathiyaron me bunyadi amal ki hesiyat rakhta hai. or nucleyai tawanai ke mansubon me bhi….. Rutherford ki daryaft madarsiyati dilchaspi se barh kar ek kamyabi thi.

Rutherford ki azim shakhsiyat apne milne walon ko be-inteha mutasir karti thi. Wo bare dill dol ka buland awaz wala admi tha. Us me beant tawanai or aetamad tha oe aetadal ki wazah kami bhi. Jab Rutherford ki is pur israr ahliyat pr k wo hamesha scienci tehqiq ke bahao ki inteha pr hi rehta hai us ke ek rafiq ne tabsira kya to us ne foran jawab dya “han akhir q nahi? Main ne ek sell jari kya hai, kya nahi hua?” chand hi scientists is bayan se mutafiq nahi hon ge.