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Isaac Newton

(Biography)

The great scientist who inspire the whole world by his gorgeous mind, and different invention named Newton, was born on 25th day of December 1642 in England. At the age of 18, he got admission in Cambridge University, where he introduce his self from science and mathematics. In the field of mathematics he gave the complete concepts of calculus at the age of 25th or 30th, which is his biggest success. In the field of mechanics he played very important role. He gave 3 universal laws of motion which help to know how a body moves.
            Newton also know as the great astrologist. He wrote a book in 1687 in this field named “philosophiae naturalis principia Mathematica ( Mathematical)” in which he describe the force of gravity and laws of motion too. There are six books that were written by Newton, named are, 1. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica( 1687) 2. The Chronology of ancient kingdoms (1728) 3.an historical account of two notable corruptions of scripture (1754) 4. De Mundi Systemate. (1728) 5.opticks or A Treatise of the reflection, refractions, infections and colors of the reflection, refractions, inflections and colors of light also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures(1702 or 1704). No doubt Newton played very important role in the field of science, the great scientist, mathematician, astrologist and a physician died on 20th day of march 1727 at the age of 72.

 

Introduction

Alexander pope ye azim tarin sciencedanon me sab se mutasir kun shakhs aizk newton 1642 me chrisms ke roz englishtan me “vevals thorap” ke muqam pr paida hua usi baras galileo mara. Bachpan hi me honehar barwa ke chikne chikne path ke mutaradif is ne mechanici mazahir ki taraf melan tibah zahir kya. ye dasti kaam bari umdagi se karta tha newton ek zahin bacha tha lekin madarsa se koi dilchaspi nahi thi jab wo jawan tha us ki maa ne use madarse se uthwa lya is umid pr ke shayad ye ek kamyab kisan ban jae. Khush qismati se wo manti thi k us ki dilchaspi ke saman kuch dosre hain. 18 baras ki umar me wo cemerej university me dakhil hua. Wahan us ne science or reyaziyat ke lye khud ko waqf kar dya jald hi apne tor pr achi bhali tehqiq karne laga. Bachpan se 27 sal ki umar tak us ne in scienci nazariyat ki bumyaden hila kar rakh di thin. Jinhon ne bad azan dunya me inqalab barpa karna tha.

Contribution of Newton
Newton’s 17th century

17th sadi ke ost me science ke medan me bari shado mad se kaam ho raha tha. Is sadi ke agaz me hi (telescope) dorbin ki ejad ne ilm falkiyat ke medan me tehalka macha dya tha. Angrezi philosopher france bekan or francici philosopher rene decart don one europe bhar ke science danon ko is taraf mail kya k wo arsto ki hakmiyat ka aetraf kye bagair apne tor pr mushahida or tajurba karen. Jo kuch bekan or decart ne kaha azim gleleo new o kar dikhaya. Us ke falkiyati mushahidat ne, jo no ejad dorben ki madad se mumkin hue the ilme falkiyat ko ek naya rukh dya. Usi ke mechanici tajurbat pr is asol ki bunyad qaim hai. jise hum harkat ka pehla qanon kehte hain.

Digar azim scienci dan jese vilium harwe jis ne gardishe khon ka asol daryaft kya or johans capler jis ne suraj ke gird saiyaron ki harkat ke qawanin daryaft kye science danon ke tabqa ko nayi bunyadi malomat faraham kar rahe the. Lekin hanoz khalis science danishwaron ke lye faqat ek shagal fursat thi. Aese shawahid bhi mojud nahi the k technology pr muntabiq ho kar science is andaz me insani tarze mashrat kon tabdil kar de gi jesa france bekan ne paish goi ki thi.

Har chand k coper neks or gleleo ne qadim ulom ki kai ek galat fehmian dor kar di thin or kainat ke feham me gran qadar izafa kye the lekin tahal qawanin ka koi majmoa wazah nahi kya ja sakta tha. Jo an bazahir gair mutaliq dikhai dene wale haqaiq ko ek marbot nazarya me dhale jis se phir scienc paish goi mumkin ho sake. Aizk newton ne hi ye nazarya paish kya or jadid science ko is rukh pr mor dya jidhar ye aaj bhi rawan hai.

Thought about light

Apni tehqiqat ki ashaat me newton hamesha mutazibzib rehta tha halanke wo apni tehqiqat ke zarye bunyadi nazaryat ko 1669 tak wzah kar chukka tha, tahum us ke beshtar nazaryat dair bad manzare aam pr aae. Us ke shah hone wale awalin tehalka macha dene wale nazaryat ‘roshni’ ki huiyat se mutaliq the. Mohtat tajurbat ke silsila ke bad newton ne daryaf kya k aam fased roshni qoso qazah ke tamam rango ka amiza hai us ne roshni ke inakas or inataf ke qawanin ke nataij ka bhi mohtat tajzia kya. In qawanin ko baroe kar la kar us ne 1668 me roshni munakis karne wali pehli dorbin ka naqsha or dhancha tayar kya. Ye khas wzah ki dorbin hai jo aaj bhi bari falkiyati mushahida gahon me istemal hoti hai. digar mutadid basri tajurbat ke sath jo wo kar chukka tha us ne apni daryafton ko “british royal society” ke samne paish kya jab us ki umar 29 baras thi.
Introduce calculas method
Tahum ye khalis reyaziyat or machine dani me us ki kamyabion ke muqable me hech hain. Reyaziyat me us ki bari kamyabi mukamal ilmul ahsa (calculus) ki ejad hai. jo is ne galiban 23 ya 25 baras ki umar me mumkin bana li thi. Agar newton is akmal calculus ki ejaz ke masiwa koi dosri ejad nab hi karta to use phir bhi is fehrist ke ibtadai hisa me koi muqam mil sakta tha.
Introducing force formula (F=ma)
Tahum newton ki intehai aham ejadat “machine dani” ke shobe me hain. Ye ilm amdi ashya ki harkat se taluq rakhta hai. gleleo ne harkat ka pehla qanon daryaft kya. Jo ajsam ki harkat ki tozeh karta hai yani jab wo kisi beroni qowat se azad ho. Amli tor pr har jism hama waqt beroni qowat ki zid me hota hai jabke ilm sakon or harkat me sab se aham sawal ye hai k in halat me jism kis tarha harkat karta hai? is masla ko newton ne apne harkat ke dosre qanon ki madad se hal kya. Jise baja tor pr classici tabiyat ka intehai bunyadi qanon taslim kya ja sakta hai. (is qanon ko reyaziyati tor pr is musawat se zahir kya jata hai,   F= ma). Is ke mutabiq eke k jism ka takher yani wo sharah jis se is jism ki rafter tabdil hoti hai. jism pr jumla beroni taqat ke musavi hai, jo is sheh ke volume ke sabab do hisson me taqsim hoti hai. in do marof qawanin me newton ne mazid ek ka izafa kya (jis ke mutabiq har tibih tawanai ke khilaf ek brabar taqat ka rade amal paida hota hai) jabke is ke scienci qawanin me sab se aham “kashish saqal” hi ka qanon tha. 4 qawanin ke is majmoa ne bahum ishtrak se ek marbot nizam wzah kya jis ke zarye akhir kar tamam mechanici nizam hae kar ki tehqiq mumkin ho gai. Wo chahe ek pendulum ki harkat ka nizam ho ya suraj ke gird apne madar me chakar kate saiyaron ka nizam ho. Nez un ke mutaliq paish goi bhi mumkin hui. newton ne faqat in mechanici qawanin ko hi bayan nahi kya us ne calculus ke reyaziyat asol istemal; karte hue sabit kya k kis tarha ye bunyadi qawanin haqiqi masail hal ke lye baroe kar lae jae sakte hain.

Wrote A Book
Newton ke qawanin ko intehai bare tanazir me science or engineering ke masail me istemal kya gya hai. apni zindagi me hi ilm falkiyat me is qaqanin ka intehai dramai intebaq kya gya. Is shobe me bhi newton ne naye darwa kye.1687 me un ki azim kitab “fitri falsafa ke riyazi qawanin” shah hui. Is me us ne pne kashish saqal or harkat ke qawanin ke bayan kya. newton ne sabit kya k kis tarha in qawanin ke zarye suraj ke gird ghomte saiyaron ki harkat ke mutaliq paish goi ki ja sakti hai. ye harkiyat ilme falkiyat ka bunyadi masla hai yani kis tor sitaron or saiyaron ke durst muqam or harkat ke mutaliq pehle se jana jae. Newton ne ek hi hale me ise yaksar hal kar dya. Yahi waja hai k newton ko mahirin ilm falkiyat me bhi sab se azim shakhsiyat mana jata hai.

Other scientist said  about Newton
ye newton ki science me ahmiyat ke mutaliq hamara tajziya hai? agar koi science qam osul alum ke isharya pr nazar dorae to use jan bajan (galiban dosron ki nisbat do ya 3 bar zyada) newton ke or us ke nazaryat or ejadat ke hawale dikhai den ge. Mazid baran ye bhi zehan nashin rakhna chahye k dosre science danon ne newton ke mutaliq kya ray di? Laibnez ko newton ka dost bhi nahi tha balke ek mamle me dono me shadid talkh kalami bhi hui.ek jaga raqam par daz hai “ afrensh dunya se newton tak ilm riyaziyat ko paishe nazar rakha jae beshak is akele ka nam baqi tamam ilm se kahin badtar hai” azim francici  sciencidan layalas raqam traz hai “ nasal insani ki kisi bhi dosri khud sakhta she ki nasbat “qawanin” kahin behtar hai.” lagrange aksar baisrar kehta k newton ek azim tarin johar ka malik hai arnst makh 1901 me ek mazmon me likhta hai. “ is ke bad riyaziyat ke ilm me jo kuch bhi izafa hua hai wo newton ke qawanin ki bunyad pr hone wala machine dani ka makhos, rasmi or riyaziyati irtaqa hai.” ye galiban newton ki azim kamyabi ka mama hai k is ke lye science ajnabi haqaiq or qawanin ka malgoba nahi thi. Jo kuch mazahir ko bayan karne ke ahal to thi lekin jo faqat chand ek ke bare me hi koi paish goi kar sakti thi. Is ke bajae us ne hamen qawanin ke ek marbot nizam dya hai. jin ka tabi mazhar me wasih tar tanazir me itlaq mumkin hai or durst tarin paish goi ke lye bhi unhen istemal kya ja sakta hai.

is tarha ke mukhtasar mazmon ne newton ke tamam daryafton ki mukamal tafsil dena mumkin nahi so koi ek kam ahmiyat ke hamil ejadad ka yahan tajkira bhi nahi kya gya hai. halanke apne tor pr wo aham ejadadat thin. Harkiyat (thermodynamic) or ilm sotiyat me bhi newton ne gran bha izafa kye hain. Us ke mayare harkat or zavia dar meyare harkat ke tahafuz ke azhad waqih tibeh qawanin paish kye. Us ne riyaziyat me do adaddi kuliya daryaft kya. Usi ne sitaron ke zahor ki awalin maqol tojih paish ki. 

Death
1727 me newton ke inteqal hua. Use “west minister” ke girja me dafnaya gya wo pehla science dan tha jise ye ezaz mila.