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Johan Gutenberg was a citizen of  Mainz a city of German, he was born in 1395 and expired on 3 February 1468 at the age of 70. He is the first who use the moveable printing press at 1439.in 1504 he was mentioned as the inventor of typography by professor lvo Wittig in a book. In this Page you will find and read Johannes Gutenberg biography in urdu hindi and roman.
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Johann Gutenberg

(Biography)

 

Johannes Gutenberg ko chapa khana ka mojid qarar dya jata hai. asal me us ne ye kya k pehle se zere istemal mutehrik chape ko is andaz me behtar banaya k us se bari tadad me or zyada dursti ke sath tabaat ka amal muqamal hua.

Koi ejad mukamal tor pr kisi ek hi fard ke zehan se baramad nahi hoti zahir hai k chapa khana aesi hi ek ejad hai. sanche ki chapai ke tehat banne wali mohre or mohardar angothiyan azmun qadim se zere istemal thin. Johannes Gutenberg se kai sadian pehle chaina me sanche ki chapai ka tariqa raij tha jabke 868 ke karib wahan tibah hone wali ek kitab bhi daryaft hui hai. magrib me bhi Johannes Gutenberg se pehle is tamam amal se log ashna the. Sanche ki chapai se kisi ek kitab se boht se nuskhe tayar karna mumkin tha. Is tariq kar me albata ek qabahat thi k ar nayi kitab ke lye har bar lakri ke tukre ya takhton ka ek mukamal sancha tayar karna parta tha. Boht zyada tadad me kitaben chapne ke lye har tariqa kar naqabile amal tha.

       Amoman khyal kya jata hai k Johannes Gutenberg ki aham ejad mutehrik sanchon ka chapa khana hai jabke mutehrik chapa khana chaina me 11th sadi esvi ke wast me p sheg nami ek shakhs ne ejad kya tha. Us ke huruf miti se banae jate the jo paidar nahi hote the tahum chaina or koria ke afrad ne usi me behtri ki kai ek soraten paida kin. Johannes Gutenberg se pehle koria me hati huruf istemal hone lage the. 15th sadi ke awail me ho koria ki hakomat chapai ke huruf ki tayari ke lye ek bari sanat ki dag bel dal chuki thi. Is ke bawajud p sheg ke bare me ye tasawer karna beja hoga k wo koi asar angez fard hai. pehli waja to ye hai k europe ne mutehrik huruf tabaat ka tariqa chaina se nahi sikha tha balke apne tor pr use ejad kya. Dosri waja ye hai k mutehrik huruf ki chapai ka tariqa kar kabhi chaina me maqbol aam ki sand hasil nahi kar saka mojuda zamane me europe se jadid tabaati nizam mustaar lene ke bad chaina me us ka itlaq aam hua.

 Jadid tabaati nizam ke 4 bunyadi anasir hain. 1st mutehrik huruf ka tariqa kar jis me huruf ko jorne or tartib dene ka amal shamil hai. 2nd tabaati machine. 3rd umdah tabaati roshnai or 4th ek umdah mawad yani kagaz jis pr chapai hoti hai. khud tasai lon se kais al pehle chaina me kagaz ejad ho chukka tha or Johannes Gutenberg ked or se pehle hi magrib me is ka aam istemal shuru ho gya tha. Ye tabaati tariqa kar ka wahid ansar tha jo tayar halat me Johannes Gutenberg ko dastiyab hua. Baqi 3 ajza pr bhi behre tor kisi na kisi had tak kaam ho chukka tha. Johannes Gutenberg ne is me matno andaz ki behtaryan paida kin. Missal ke tor pr us ne huruf ke lye ek mozon khot mili dhat tayar ki. Huruf ki tukaryon ko sahi tor pr baham marbot kamne ke lye ek sancha, chiknahat wali tabaati roshnai or tabaat ke lye mozon “kul” bhi tayar ki.

Tahum Johannes Gutenberg ka man hesul jamo kaam us ki infradi izafon se kahin zyada bara hai. wo is lye zyada aham hai k us ne tabat ke tamam ajza ko mosar andaz paidawari nizam me yakja kar dya. Pehle se mojud digar tamam ejadat ke baraks tabaat me bari miqdar me paidawar ki gunjaish mojus thi. Ek raifal, tir or Kaman ki nasbat kahin zyada mosar hathyar hai. isi tore k tibah shuda kitab ek hath se likhi ui kitab se kam waqeh nahi hai tibaat ka awal faida yahi paidawar ke volume me izafa ki sorat me tha. Johannes Gutenberg ki ejad kisi purane tariqa kar ka ahya nahi thin a hi ye izafon k eek silsila ki sorat me thi balke ye ek mukamal paidawari amal tha.

Johannes Gutenberg ki sawanah hayat ke bare me hamari malumat nehayat kam hain. Hum itna jante hain k wo 1400 ke karib germani me “menz” shehar me paida hua tha. Tibaati fan me us ne sui sadi ke karib wast me ye izafe kye jabke  us ka marof kar nama “Johannes Gutenberg angel” thi jo 1454 ke lagbhag menz me hi tibah ki gai. (tajasus ki bat ye hai k Johannes Gutenberg ka nam us ki kisi kitab pr darj nahi than a hi us ki angel pr jabke us me koi kalam nahi hai k ye angel usi ki banai hui machine pr tiba hui thi.) yun lagta hai k ek acha karobari nahi tha. Wo apni ejad se kabhi zyada dolat ikatha na kar saka. Wo mutadad muqadmat pr ghar gya. Jinn me se ek muqadma us ki apni machine se apne sharakat kar johan fost ke haq me dastbardar hone ki sorat me muntaj hua. Wo 1468 me menz me fot hua.

Tarikhe alam pr Johannes Gutenberg ke asarat ka ek khaka hum bad ke barso me chaina or europe me hone wali taraqi ke bahami taqabil se hasil kar sakte hain. Johannes Gutenberg ki paidaish ke waqt dono elaqe techniqi tor pr brabar taraqi yafta the. Tahum tadid tabaati nizam ki ejad ke bad europe ki taraqi serial rafter ho gai. Jabke chaina me jahan sanche ki chapai ka tariqa kar hi barta jata raha taraqi ki rafter nasbatan sust rahi ye kehna shayad mubaliga hoga k tibaati taraqi hi wo asal muhrik tha jis ne ye imteyaz paida kya ye ek aham sabab tha.