Home Biography<<  
Worldknowledge1
 
 
 
 
 
John Dalton was born on 6 September 1766 in England, he was on the famous and best chemist of his time, he was also Physician and meteorologist. He played an important role to develop the chemistry and did a lot of thing, in this modern era all the chemist remember his contribution,  he was the father of Dalton atomic theory, and also introduce of law of Multiple proportional, and one of the best law he was introduced which was generally known as Dolton’s law of partial pressures, due to his contribution some people lovingly called him as a doltonism. In this page you will find and read John Dalton biography in hindi and roman urdu.
john dalton atomic model, john dalton theory, john dalton discovery, john dalton model, john dalton experiments, john dalton information, john dalton inventions, john dalton books,. john dalton biografia, john dalton biografi, john dalton birth and death.

John Dalton

(Biography)

 

Birth Date : 6th September 1766

Death Date : 27th July 1844

John Dalton Books

A New System of Chemical Philosophy
Meteorological Observations And Essays
The Inverted Forest A Novel

John dalton angrez scientist tha. 19th sadi ke awail me us ne science ki dunya me atmi mafroza maruf karaya. Is tor us ne wo bunyadi kalid fraham kar di jis se chemistry me bepayan taraqi i rah hamwar kar di.
Lekin haqiqatan wo ye maroza paish karne wala pehla admi nahi tha k tamam madi ajsam nehayat mekhtasar or naqabile na zaron se mil kar tashkil pate hain jinhen “atom” kehte hain.
Ye nazarya pehli bar qadim unani falsafi demo quratis (460 – 370BC ) ne paish kya. Unani falsafi apiqoras ne bhi is nazarya ko ikhtayar kya or bad azan romi musanif liokritis (wafat :55 qabal masih) ne apni marof nazam “ashya ki fitrat pr ek nazar” me use bare shandar andaz me paish kya hai.
Demo quratis (jis ka nazarya arsto ne rad kar dya tha) ke nazarya ko azmun wasti me nazar andaz kya jata raha. So jadid science pr is ke asarat nehayat kam hain. Jabke 17th sadi ke mutadid scientist (bashamol aizk newton) ne is tasawer ki himayat ki thi. Tahum atom ke ye qadim nazaryat kabhi thos andaz me paish nahi kye gae na scienci tehqiqat ke lye inhen darkhor aetana jana gya. Zyada aham bat ye hai k kisi ne atom ke mutaliq falsufyana mafrozat or kimya ki thos haqaiq ke darmiyan kisi rabt ka adrak nahi kya. Yahi wo muqam tha jahan doltan manzare aam pe aya us ne wazah or thos nazarya paish kya jise kimiyai tajurbat ki tasrih me istamal or tajurba gah me jis ki ben azmaish ki ja sakti thi.
Har chand k us ki istalahat hamari mojuda istalahat se qadre mukhtalif thin lekin doltan ne atom, molecules, element or chemical compound ke tasawerat bare ben andaz me bayan kye. Us ne ye bhi wazah kya k agarcha dunya me atoms ki ul tadad boht zyada hai tahum un ki anwa ki tadad kam hai. (us ne apni asal kitab me 20 anasir ki fehrist likhi hai jabke aaj hum 100 se zaid anasir se bakhabar hain).
Agarcha atoms ki mukhtalif anwa balehaz wazan bhi mukhtalif hain tahum doltan ka israr tha k ek hi anwa ke do atoms ki safat or ozan yaksa hote hain. (amiq jadid tajurbat ke sabit hua hai k is qanon me bhi mustasniyat hain kisi kimyawi anasir me do ya zyada anwa ke atom hote hain jinhen (isotopes ) kaha jata hai. ye wazan ke aetabar se mamoli ikhtalaf ke hamil hain halanke in kimyawi khasosiyat mumasil hoti hain). Doltan ne apni kitab me atoms ki mukhtalif anwa ke mutaliq ozan ka ek goshwara bhi dya hai. ye apni noiyat ka pehla goshwara tha. Ye kisi bhi kamiyati atomi nazarya ki ek kalidi khasosiyat shumar hoti hai.
Doltan ne ye bhi wazahat ki k ek hi chemical compound ke koi do molecule atoms ke mumasil istrak se mutashkil hote hain (misal ke tor pr nitris oxide ke har molecule me nitrogen ke do or oxygen ka ek atom shamil hota hai). is se ye sabit hua k kis khas chemical compound me, is se qata nazar k wo kis tor pr tabah hua ya kahan mojud hai hamesha ek se anasir balehaz wazan karib ek se tanasub me mojud hote hain. Ye mutaliq tanasub ka qanon hai jise jozef louis prost ne chand sal qabal tajurbati tor daryaft kya tha. Aese thos andaz me doltan ne apna nazarya paish kya k agle 20n barason me scientist ki aksaryat ne use qabol kar lya. Chemists ne us kitab me paish karda mansuba ki taqlid ki. Jo sahih tarin mutaliqa atomi ozan ka tain karta, balehaz wazan chemical compound ka ajziya karta or atoms ke durst ishtarak ka jaiza leta jo har no ke molecule ki tashkil karta tha. Ye mansuba bepayan kamyabi se hamkinar hua.
Atomi mafroze ki waqat ka tain karna dushwar hai. kimiya ke hawale se ye hamare feham ka ek bunyadi hawala banta hai. mazid barhan us ki hesiyat jadid physic ke ek muqadma ki bhi hai. sirf is lye q k doltan se pehle bhi atomi mafroze pr khasa kaam ho chuka tha so us ka kaam is fehrist me pehle hisa me jaga nahi pa saka.
Doltan shumali englistan ke ek dehat egals feild me 1766 ko paida hua. Ibtadai talim 11 baras ki umar me mukamal ki jabke apni scienci talim ka kharcha us ne khud sahara. Waqt se pehle hi wo pukhta admi ban gya. 11 baras ki umar me us ne tadris ka pesha apna lya. Zindagi ke baqya beshtar barson me wo usi peshe se wabasta raha. 15 baras ki umar me wo ek qasba kandal mutaqil ho gya. Jab wo 26 baras ka tha to wo monchester chala gya jahan wo apni wafat ke sal 1844 tak muqim raha. Us ne mujrid zindagi guzari.
1787 me doltan ko ilm mosamiyat me dilchaspi paida hui. Jab us ki umar faqat 21 baras ki. 6 sal bad us ne is mozo pr ek kitab likhi. Hawa or mahol ke mutala se use majmoi tor pr gases ki khasosiyat me dilchaspi paida hui. Mutadid tajurbat ke bad us ne gases ki huiyat se mutaliq do bunyadi qanonen daryaft kye. Pehla qanon doltan ne 1801 me paish kya. Is ke mutabiq gas jitna volume ikhteyar karti hai wo us ke temprature pr inhesar karta hai. (is ko amoman ek francici scientist charles ke nam pr “charles ka qanon” kaha jata hai. us ne doltan se kahin sal pehle ye qanon daryaft kar lya tha lekin apne nataij chapwa nah saka tha). Dosra qanon 1801 me paish kya gya jise jazwi dabao ka doltan ka qanon kaha jata hai.
1804 tak doltan ne apna atomi nazarya wazan kar lya tha or atomi ozan ki fehrist tartib de li thi. Tahum us ki aham kitab “kimyawi falsafa ka ek naya nizam” 1808 me hi manzare aam pr aai. Is kitab ne use bam shohrat pr pohnch dya. Bad ke salon me us ko mutadid ejazat mile.

Hadsati tor pr doltan “colour blind” ho gya. Is sorate hal ne us me nayi dilchaspion ko ubhara us ne is mozo ka mutala kya or “colour blind” pr ek scienci maqala tehrir kya jo is mozo pr pehla maqala tasawer hota hai.