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Karl Heinrich Marx was born on 5 May 1818 in Germany and expired on 14 March 1883 in London. He was a German historian, journalist, sociologist, economist, philosopher and revolutionary socialist. He wrote the book Das Kapital, Grundrisse. In this page you will find and read Karl Heinrich Marx biography in Urdu Hindi and Roman urdu.
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Karl Marx

(Biography)

 

Scienci ishtarakiyat pasnadi ka asal bani karal marx 1818 me Germany ke qasba trair me paida hua. Us ka bap ek lawyer tha 17 Baras ki umar me karaln marx bon university me law ki talim ke hasol ke lye dakhil hua. Bad azan WO barlan university muntaqil ho gya. Jita university se us ne doctor ki sand hasil ki. 

Bad azan marx ne sahafat ka shoba apnaya. Kuch mudat ke lye wo kolon me “rehensh zeting” ka mudir bhi raha. Tahum apne katar siyasi nuqta nazar ke saba use mushkilat se dochar hona para jis ke sabab wo peres muntaqil ho gya. Wahan us ki mulaqat frederk angles se hui. Un ke bich ghehri dosti or siyasi hamahangi paida ho gai jot a dam akhir qaim rahi. Dono ne infradi tor pr bhi mutadid kutub tehriri kin lekin un me zehni muwafiqat is qadar zyada thi k unki mushtarka tehriron ko ek mutehad zehni kawish qarar dya ja sakta hai.
Marx ko france se bhi des nikala mila wo barcel chala gya. 1847 me wahin us ki pehli aham kitab “ aflas falsafa” shaa hui. Agle baras angles ki sharakat ke sath us ki tehrir “comunstn mini festive” shaa hui. Ye un ki sab se zyada parhi jane wali tehrir hai. bad azan usi baras marx kolon wapis aya. Lekin chand mah bad hi use phir se wahan se nikal dya gya tab wo landon chala gya jahan us ne zindagi ke baqya ayam guzare.

Bator sahafi us ki amadni qalil th. Tahum wo landon me apna beshtar waqt tehqiq karne or siyasat or mashiyat ke mozoat pr kitaben likhne me sarf karta tha (in salon me marx or us ke khandan ki guzar oqat ka wahid sahara angles ki rehamdilana mali imdad thi). Marx ki sab se aham kitab “ das ketpal” ki jild awal 1867 me manzare aam pr aai. 1883 me jab marx fot hua to digar jilden namukamal halat me thin. Angles ne marx ke masodat or hawalajat ki madad se un jildon ki adarat ki or inhen chapwane ka bandobast kya.

Marx ki tehriron ne ishtamaliyat pasandi or ishtrakiyat opasandi ki mutadid jadid shakhon ke lye nazaryati asas muhaiya ki. Marx ki wafat ke waqt kisi mulk me in khayal ka amlan itlaq na hua tha. Bad azan ros or chaina samet mutadid mumalik me ishtaraki hakomaten qaim huin. Jabke mutadid mumalik me us ki talimat pr mabni taharik ne sar uthaya or iqtadar pr qabiz hone ki kawishen huin. In marxi anjumanon ki sargarmion me hasol iqtadar ke lye tashiro ashat, qatalo garat, dehshat gardi or bagawat bapa karna shamil hai. hakumat hasil kar lene ke bad bhi unh one jangen, wehshiyana jabro tashadud or khoni akhraj se bhi gurez na kya. In sargarmion ne dunya ko salhasal tak badamani ki halat me rakha. Or Karib 100,000,000 amwat ka bais huin. Kisi falsafi ne apni tehriron ke sabab dunya pr is qadar ghehre asarat muratab nahi kye. Aap yakin kijye k marximmasi or siyasi aetabar se tabah kun sabit hua lekin kisi tore k gair aham tehrik nahi thi.

In tamam waqyat ke tanazir me ye wazah hai k marx is hfehrist me ek ala darja ka mustehiq hai. sawal ye hai k ye darja kis qadar buland hona chahye? Agar hum un bepayan asarat ko taslim kar len jo ishtamaliyat pasandi ne dunya pr sabt kye ishtamali tehrik me khud marx ki ahmiyat ka sawal phir bhi jawab talab rehta hai. sowiyat hakumat karwaiyan kabhi baqaida andaz me marx ke tehriron ki taba nahi rahen. Us ne nazaryat bayan kye jese hegel ki jadliyat or mehnat ki qimat zaid wagera. Jabke aese tajridi tasawerat ke rosi or chaines hakumat ki roz mara ki hikmat amlion pr asarat boht kam hain. 

Is hawale se bar ha tanqid ki gai hai k marx ki aksar paishangoian salat sabit huin. Misal ke tor pr us ne paishan goi kit hi k sarmayadar mumalik me waqt guzarne ke sath sath mehnat kash musalsal garib hote chale gaen ge jabke aesa nahi hua. Marx ki ek paishan goi ye bhi thi k mutawast tabqa khatam ho gae ga. Us ke zyada tar arakin proltarya me shamil ho gaen ge jabke baqi taraqi kar ke sarmayadar tabqa se mil jaen ge. Zahir hai k aesa bhi nahi hua us ka ye khyal bhi tha k mechaniciyat ki barho tari sarmaya daron ke munafa ko harap kar le gi. Ye paishan goi na sirf galat thi balke ahmqana bhi thi.  Us ke mashi nazaryat durst hai ya galat is se qata nazar marx ke asarat apni jaga muslim hain. Ek falsafi ki ahmiyat ka inhasar us ke nazaryat ki dursti pr nahi hota balke is amar pr hota hai k us ke khyalat kis tor logon ko mutehrik karte hain. In bunyadon pr tajiya kya jae to marx bila shuba beinteha ahmiyat ka hamil shakhs hai.

Marxi taharik bilamom 4 bunyadi nikat pr israr karti hain:

  1. Chand amir log boht zyada dolat ke sath zindagi guzarte hain. Is ke baraks beshtar mehnat kash nasbatan muflisi ki halat me rehte hain.
  2. Is nainsafi ka tadarik ye hai k ishtraki nizam qaim kya jae. Ye aesa nizam hai jahan paidawar ke zarae niji shobe ki bajae hakumat ke hath me hote hain.
  3. Beshtar misalon se is nizam ki istawari ka wahid amli wasila ek pur tashadud inqalab hai.
  4. Is ishtraki nizam ko qaim rakhne ke lye zarori hai k ek khas waqt ke lye ishtamali tanzim ki amriyat istawar ki jae.

In se pehle 3 sorten marx se tawil arsa pehle bhi amlan mojud thin. 4th sorat marx ke “proltarya ki amriyat” ke tasawer se wzah ki gai hai. tahum sowiyat amriyat marx ki tehriron ki nasbat lenan or stalen ki hikmat amlion ka natija hai. chand mufakir ne ye dawa kya k ishtamaliyat pasandi pr marx ke asarat haqiqi nahi hain balke farzi hain. Or ye k jo ahtram us ki tehriron se mansob kya jata hai wo mehaz dikhawa hai yani apni hikmat amlion or nazaryat ko scienci jawaz dene ki ek koshish hai.