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Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599 in England, he was a political leader. His father name was Robbert Cromweel and mother name was Elizabeth Steward. Oliver Cromwell was became the part of parliament of Huntingdon in the year of 1628. he was died on 3 September 1658 when he was 59 year old. In this page you will find and read Oliver Cromwell biography in urdu hindi and roman Urdu.
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Oliver Cromwell

(Biography Of Oliver Cromwell)

 

Birth Date : 25th April 1599

Death Date : 3rd September 1658

Zahin or mutasir kun foji rehnuma Oliver Cromwell jis ne angrezon ki khana jangi me parlimani fojon ko fatah se hamkinar kya. Bartania me parlimani jamhoriyat ko nizame hakumat ke tor pr raij karne ka asal zimedar hai.
Krom well englistan me hantangdan ke muqam pr 1599 me paida hua. Nojawani me us ne ek aese englistan ka manzar dekha jo mazhabi tanazat ke tehat shakta tha or jis pr farmanarwa badshah, mutaliqul anan badshahat ka hami tha. Krom well khud ek kisan or muzazin shehar me se tha. Wo englistani protestant firqe ka pur josh rukun tha. 1628 me wo majlis qnon saz ka rukun muntakhab hua. Wo thora hi aras is ohde pr raha, q k agle hi sal badshah chales awal ne majlis ko mansokh or tan tanha mulk pr hakumat karne ka faisla kya. 1640 me hi jab badshah ko scottland ke khilaf jang karne ki khatir mali wasail ki zarorat mehsos hui to us ne ek nayi majlis qanon saz tashkil di. Is nayi majlis ka bhi krom well rukun bana. Is majlis ne badshah ki mutaliqul ananiyat ke khilaf zamanat talab ki. Charles awal ne majlis ki sar parasti qabol karne se inkar kar dya. 1642 m badshah ki taraf dari or parlimani fojon ke bich jang chir gai.
Grom well ne parlimani fojon ka sath dya. Hantangdan wapas akar us ne badshah ke khilaf ghur sawaron ka ek dasta tayar kya. Is 4 sala jang ke doran us ne apni gair mamolin askari ahliyat ki bina pr apna loha manwaya. Krom well ne 2 july 1644 ko hone wali marstan mor ki sangin jang me aham kirdar ada kya. Is jang ne sorate hal ko badal di. 14 june 1645 ko “hansbi” ki faisla kun jang hui. Jis me us ne bahaduri or zergi ke johar dikhae. 1646 me jang ke ikhtatam pr charles awal ko qed kar lya gya jabke krom well ko parlimani fojon m intehai kamyab sipasalar taslim kya gya.
 Tahum aman qaim nahi hua q k parlimani fojen mukhtalif grohon me bat gai thin. Jin ki gation me khase ikhtalafat ronuma hue. Agle baras hi badshah charles qed se farar ho gya. Us ne apni fojon ko majtama kya dosri bar khana jangi shuru hui. Is naye tanaza ka natija krom well ke hathon badshah ki shikast ki sorat me nikla majlis qanon saz me se ost darja ke arakin ko kharij or january 1649 me badshah ko qatal kar dya gya.
Englistan ek jamhori hakumat ban gya (jise dolate mushtarka pukara gya) arzi tor pr is pr riyasati majlis ki hakumat rahi, jis ka sadar nashin krom well tha. Tahum shah parast ne jald hi airland scotland me iqtadar hasil kar lya or marhom badshah ke bete charles doim ki himayat kar di. Krom well ki fojen kamyabi ke sath airland or scotland me gus gain. Jangon ka ye tawil silsila 1652 me shah parast fojon ki faisla kun shikast pr muntaj hua.
Ab jang tamam ho chuki thi. Ye nayi hakumat ki tashkil ka waqt tha. Aini dhancha tayar karne ka masla darpesh hua.jo nayi hakumat ki ek bari zimedari thi. Krom well ki zindagi me ye masla hal na ho saka. Protestant firqa ka hami sipasalar mutaliqul anan badshahat ke khialf jang me fojon ko fatah mand to bana sakta tha lekin us ki taqat or hesiyat dono apne hamion ke samaji tanazat ko hal karne ki sakat nahi rakhti thin or na inhen ek naye ain ke lye baham mutafiq kar saken. Q k ye ikhtalafat buri tarha se mazhabi ikhtalafat ke sath jure hue the, jinhon ne protestant firqa ke logon ko apas me roman ketholok ke hamion ko bhi grohon me bant dya tha.
Jab Krom well iqtadar me aya to parliment ka wo hisa jo baqi reh gya tha boht mukhtasar tha or gair numainda or intehai pasand aqliyat pr mushtamil tha. Awal awal Krom well ne naye intekhab ke inaqad ke ye muzakirat kye. Jab muzakirat nakam ho gae to us ne 20 april me jabran is mukhtasar paliment ko aladm qarar de dya. Us ke bad 1658 me Krom well ki wafat tak 3 mukhtalif majalis matashkil huin or mansokh ki gaib. Do mukhtalif ain apnae gae. Lekin koi kamyabi ke sath aid na kya ja saka. Us dor me Krom well ne foji taqat ke bal pr hakumat ki. Darasal wo ek foji amar tha. Tahum jamhori rawayat ke qayam ke lye musalsal kawishon or us ke takht nashin hone ki peshkash ko thukrana ye zahir karta hai k wo amomi maino me ek foji amar hargiz nahi tha. Aesa use majboran karna para, jo us ke hamion ki ek qabile amal hakumat tashkil na de pane ki na ahliyat ke bais hua.
1653 se 1658 tak “lord protector” ke khatab ke sath wo englistan, scotland or airland pr hukmarani karta raha. In 5 barson me Krom well ne bartanya ko ek umdah hakumat or ek marbot intezamia ka namuna paish kya. Us ne mutadid sakht qawanin ko behtar banaya or talim ke frog ke lye iqdamat kye. Wo mazhabi rawadari ka hami tha. Us ne yahodion ko englistan me abadkari or apni mazhabi rasomat ki azadana adaigi ki ijazat di (jabke yahodion ko karib 3 sadian qabal badshah aedord awal ne mulk badar kar dya tha). Krom well ne ek kamyab kharja hikmat amli bhi waza ki. Wo maleria me mubtala ho kar 1658 me london me fot hua.
Krom well ka sab se bara beta “rachand Krom well” us ka janshin bana. Tahum wo zyada arsa haumat na kar saka. 1660 me charles doim az sar no takht pr qabiz ho gya. Oliver Cromwell ke tamam tarafdaron ko chun chun kar soli pr tang dya gya. Lekin ye zalimana iqdam is haqiqat ko daba nahi saka k shahi mutaliqul ananiyat ka dor guzar chuka tha. Charles doim ko is ka mukamal ahsas tha. Us ne parliment ki bartari or aetaraz karne ki koshish nahi ii. Jab us ke janshin jems doim ne shahi mutaliqul ananiyat ke ahya ki sai ki to us ko 1688 ke khonen inqalab se do char hona para. Is ka natija wahi nikla jis ki khwahish Krom well ne 1640 me ki thi. Ek aini badshahat qaim hui jis me badshah parliment ke matehat tha or jo mazhabi rawadari pr israr karti thi.
Us ki wafat ke bad 3 sadion me Oliver Cromwell ki shakhsiyat mutanaza rahi. Mutadid naqdin ne use ek munafiq sabit kya or kaha k ek taraf to wo hamesha parliment ki bartari ki ragni apta raha or khud mukhtarana intazami haumat ka mukhalif raha. Lekin usi ne askari amriyat bhi qaim ki. Tahum aksaryat ka khayal ye tha k Krom wellwaqatan jamhori rawayat se mukhlis tha. Tahum halat us ke qabo se bahar ho gae use amrana ikhtayarat ke istamal karna para. Siyasat me Krom well ne kabhi fareb nahi kya na takht nashini qabol ki na hi mustaqbil amriyat ke qayam ki sai ki. Us ka dore hakumat amomi tor pr mutadil or bardbar hikmat amli pr mabni tha.
Tarikh me Krom well ke asarat ka tain akhir q kar mumkin ho? Is ki bunyadi ahmiyat ek shandar foji qaid ki hesiyat se banti hai jis ne angrezon ki khana jangi me shahi fojon ki shikast fash di. Jang ke ibtadai marahil me parlimani fojen mukhtalif mahazon pr bat chuki thin Krom well ke manzar pr ane se beshtar aesa mumkin dikhai deta tha k us ke bagair hatmi fatah mumkin nahi ho gi. Krom well ki fatohat ka natija tha k englistan me jamhori hakumat qaim or mazbot bunyadon pr istawar hui.

Ye aam noiyat ka waqya nahi tha k jo kese hi halat me ronuma ho jata. 17th sadi me europe ka beshtar hisa azim shahi mutaliqul ananiyat ki janib barh raha tha. Englistan me jamhoriyat ki fatah waqa tha jis ne tamam baho ka rukh hi badal dya. Bad ke salon me francici khurd afrozi ke amal me angrezon ki jamhoriyat ke waqa ne bunyadi kirdar ada kya. Magribi europe me jamhori hakumaton ke qayam me bhi us ke kirdar ko nazar andaz nahi kya ja sakta. Englistan me jamhori qowaton ki taqat ne america or sabqa bartanwi colonies jese ceneda or australia me jamhoriyat ki istawari me aham kirdar ada kya. Aarcha englistan bzata dunya ke ek mukhtasar khate pr muhih hai lekin jamhoriyat englistan se nikal kar un goshon me bhi phel gai jo mukhtasar hargiz nahi the.