Rene Descartes Biography Summary

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Rene Descartes was born in 31 March 1596 in France. His father name was Joachim and her mother name was Jeane Brochard. Rene Descartes was the mathematician, writer and also a famous philosopher of his time, he was died on 11 February 1650. In this page you will find and read rene descartes political philosophy.

Birth Date : 31st March 1596

Death Date : 11th February 1650

Rene Descartes Books

  • Rules for the Direction of the Mind
  • Los Principios de La Filosofia
  • Discourse on the Method
  • Philosophical Essays and Correspondence Descartes
  • The Passions of the Soul
  • Descartes Selected Philosophical Writings
  • Treatise of Man
  • Principles of Philosophy
  • Meditations on First Philosophy

Marof francici  falsafi, scientist or methametician Rene Descartes ek dehat “lahaye” me 1596 me paida hua. Jawani me us ne ek umdah yasoi talimi idare “collage of laflech” se tehsil ilm kya. 20 baras ki umar me us ne “university of poiters” se qanon ki degree hasil ki. Us ne qanon ki kabhi amli riyazat nahi ki. Us ka khayal tha k kisi bhi shobe me qabile aetabar ilm ki miqdar nehayat qalil hai sawae riyaziyat ke. Apni baqaida talim jari rakhne ki bajae us ne europe bhar ki ser or dunya ko ankhon se dekhne ka faisla kya. Wo ek khate pete gharane ka fard tha, us ki amadni itni zyada thi k wo azadi se tawil safar kar sakta tha.
1616 se 1628 tak Descartes ne tawil safar kya. Mukhtasar waqfon ke lye us ne 3 mukhtalif fojon me bhi shirkat ki jin me holand, bowarya or hangry ki fojen shamil hain. Tahum wo kisi jang me sharik na hua. Wo itley, poland, denmark or digar mumalik bhi gya. In barson me us ne apna nazarya waza kya jise eo sach ki daryaft ka amomi kalya qarar deta tha. 32 baras ki umar me Descartes ne faisla kya k wo apne method ko kainat ka jama tasver banane pr muntabaq kare. Wo holand me muqim ho gya. Jahan wo agle 21 bara raha. (holand ke intekhab ki waja ye thi k waha zyada zehni azadi mojud thi. Nez wo khud bhi peres ki samaji abtari se dor rehna chahta tha).
1629 ke karib us ne apni kitab “zehan ke bahao ke qanon” tehrir ki, jis me apne method ka khaka bayan kya. (kitab namukamal rahi or galiban use chapwane ke lye nahi likha gya tha. Ye pehli bar Descartes ki wafat ke 50 baras bad shaa hui). 1630 se 1634 ke darmiyan Descartes ne apne method ka mukhtalif alom pr intabaq kya. Ilm azoyat or ilm tashrihul abdan ka zyada waqof hasil karne ke lye us ne hewanat ki chir phar bhi ki. Wo basriyat, ilm hawadis samawi, meteorology, riyaziyat or science ke mutadid digarb shobo me aham khud mukhtarana tehqiq me masrof raha.
Descartes ki mansha ye thi k in scienci nataij ko ek kitab “li mondi’ me pesh kare. Tahum 1633 me jab kitab takmil ke marahil me thi us ko malom hua k itley me kalisa ke ba ikhteyar ahbab ne glageo pr copar neks ke is nazarya ki himayat ke ilzam me muqadma chalaya hai k zamin suraj ke gird gardish karti hai. holand me wo in ketholok qaidin ki girft se bahir tha, lekin phir bhi us ne faisla kya k danishmandi isi me hai k wo kitab na hi chapwae. Q k is me us ne coper neks hi ke nazarya ki himayat ki thi. Is ki bagae 1637 me us ne apni marof tarin kitab “aqal ki munasib rehnumai or ulom me sachai ki khoj ke lye tariqa kar pr mubahisa” chapwai. Is ko mukhtasaran “tariqa kar pr mubahisa” bhi likha jata hai. “mubahisa” ko latini ki bajae francici me likha gya ta ke tamam ahale ilm ise mulahiza kar saken. Bashamol un logon ke jin ki clasici ilm me tarbiyat nahi hai. “mubahisa” me 3 mawole shamil the, jin me Descartes ne un daryafton ki misalen pesh kin, jinhen us ne apne tariqa hae kar ke intabaq se hasil kya. Aese hi pehle tatma me jis ka unwan “basirat” hai Descartes ne roshni ki inhataf ka qanon pesh kya (jise us se pehle wilberd radswansil daryaft kar chuka tha). Us ne adson or mutadid alat basarat pr behas ki. Ankh ki wazifa or us ke mutadid naqais ko bayan kya or roshni ka nazarya pesh kya, jo roshni ki lehron ke nazarya ki abtadai sorat tha, jise bad azan kiristyan hae jenz ne waza kya. Us ka dosra zamima “ilm hawadis samawi” (meteorology) ki awalin jadid behas pr mabni hai. us ne badalon, barish or hawa pr guftago ki or rainbow ki durst tozih ki. Us ne is tasawer ke khilaf dalail pesh kye k hudat ek gair mari sayal made pr mushtamil hoti hai. us ne durst natija mustanbat kya k hararat dakhli terik ki ek sorat hai (tahum ye nazarya us se qabal francec bekan or digar afrad pesh kar chuke the). Tisre zamima “ilm hindsa” me us ne apni sab se aham ejad pesh ki yani “tashrihi ilm hindsa”. Ye ek aham riyaziyati peshe raft thi, jis ne newton ke lye calculus ki ejad ki rah hamwar ki.
Descartes ke falsafa ka sab se aham hisa galiban wo andaze fikar hai, jis se wo agaz karta hai, in tamam gair durst tasawarat ki mojudgi me ji amomi tor pr musalma the. Descartes ne faisla kya k sach tak rasai ke lye use naye sire se agaz karna ho ga. Us ne har she pr shak ka agaz kya, wo tamam baten jo us ke asatza ne use batai thn. Tamam maroja aqaid, feham aam ke tamam tasawerat. Hata k marozi dunya ke or khud apne wajud pr shak kya. Qisa mukhtasar k “har she” pr. Is se ek masla paida hua k akhir aese kainati shak pr galib ana or kisi bhi she ke bare me mutabar ilm hasil karna q kar mumkin hai? anokhe mabadul tabiyati dalail or brahin ke ek silsila ke zerye wo apni hi tasali ke lye ye sabit karne ke qabil ho gya k wo khud wajud rakhta hai (main sochta hon, is lye main hon) or ye k khuda mojud hai or ye k kharji dunya bhi hai ye Descartes ke nazarya ke ibtadai niqat the.
Descartes ke tariqa kar ki afadiyat dohri hai. 1st us ne apne falsufyana nizam ke markaz me ye bunyadi ilmyati sawal pesh kya “insani ilm ka mabda kya hai?” qadim falsufa ne dunya ki huiyat ko bayan karne ki sai ki thi. Descartes ne hamen bataya k aese sawal ka tasali bakhsh jawab dye bagair mumkin nahi k “main kese jan pata hon?”
2nd Descartes ne ye tajwiz kya k hamen fikar ka agaz aetaqad se nahi balke shak se karna chahye. (ye sent ogastain ke rawaiye ka bilkul tazad tha. Or az mun wasti ke beshtar mahirin alhayat ke is khayal ka bhi k aetaqad ko foqiyat hasil honi chahye.).
Ye durst hai k Descartes raskh aqidah mahirin alhayat ke nataij tak pohnchne ke lye ek qadam aage barh gya. Tahum us ke tarin us ke mustakharj karda nataij ki nasbat us ke waza karda tariqa kar pr zyada tawaja dete hain (kalisa ka ye khof jaiz tha k Descartes ki tehriren akhir kar sab kuch teho bala kar den gi). Apne falsafa me Descartes ne zehan or madi ajsam me mojud imtayaz pr israr kya hai or is zaman me ek kali sanwiyat pasandi (dualism) ki himayat ki hai. aesa imtayaz qabal azen pesh kya ja chuka tha. Lekin Descartes ki tehriron ne is mozo pr mubahis ko tehrik di, jo sawalat us ne uthae hamesha se falsufa ki dilchaspi ke the, or hanoz jawab talab hain.
Descartes ka tabi kainat ka tasawer bhi nehayat asar angez tha. Us ka aetaqad tha k tamam dunya masawae khuda or insani roh ke mechanics asolon pr rawan hai. so tamam fitri waqoat ki mechanici alal (causes) ke zarye tasrih ho sakt hai. isi bunyad pr us ne ilm najom, jadu or digar tohmat ke dawon ko jhutlaya. Us ne waqoat ki tamam teleological tozihat ko bhi rad kya. (us ne barae rast mechanisi causes ko taslim kya or is nazarya ka istardad kya k waqoat kisi baid az aqal maqsad ke hasol ke lye ronuma hote hain). Descartes ke nuqtae nazar se ye sabit hua k janwar apni fitrat me pechida kalin (machines) hain or ye k insani jisam bhi mechaniyat ke amomi qawanin ke tehat kaam karta hai. tab se ye jadid ilm physiology ka ek bunyadi tasawer ban gya.
Descartes ne scienci tehqiq pr israr kya. Us ka khayal tha k us ke amli itlaqat mashre ke lye sod mand hain. Or ye k scientist ko mabham tasawerat se pehlon bachana chahye or dunya ko methematical equation ke zarye bayan karne ki koshish karni chahye. Ye sari baten boht jadid malom hoti hain. Descartes ne ye mushahidat khud kye lekin scienci method me kabhi tajurbat ki intehai ahmiyat pr israr nahi kya.
Marof bartanwi falsafi francec bekan ne Descartes se kai sal pehle scienci taftish ki zarorat pr zor dya thya na hi Descartes ka ye maqola hi us ka apna hai k “main sochta hon, is lye main hon” karib 1200 sal pehle sent ogistain ne karib yahi bat qadre mukhtalif alfaz me bayan ki thi. Isi tarha khuda ke wajud ke lye Descartes ka sabot is wajudyati (ontological) barhan ki ek tabdil shudah sorat hai jise pehli bar sent henslem (1033 – 1109) ne paish kya.
1641 me Descartes ne apni ek dosri marof kitab shaa ki “tafakirat” (meditation) us ki kitab “falsafa ke qawanin” 1644 me chapi. Dono latini zabanon me likhin gain jabke us ke francici tarajum 1647 me shaa hue.
Agarcha Descartes ek manjha hua musanif tha. Us ka ek dilkash aslob nasar tha. Tahum us ki tehriron ka lehja heart angez tor pr daqyanosi tha. Jo basa oqat apne aqal pasandana rang dhang ke bais az mun wasti ki madarsiyat me dhala hua lehja lagta hai. us ke baraks frances bekan agarcha Descartes se 35 baras abal paida hua us ka aslob yaksar jadid hai. jesa k us ki tehriron se matrashah hai k Descartes ek katar khuda parast tha, wo khud ko ek atat guzar kethulok tasawer karta. Tahum ahal kalisa us ke nazaryat se khush nahi the. Us ki kitabon ke nam kethulok kitabon ki fehrist me mamno kutub me darj hote the. Hata k protestant holand me bhi (jo us dor me europe me sab se zyada mazhabi rawadari ka hamil mulk tha) Descartes pr la adriyat (atheism) ka ilzam laga or us ke ahal kalisa se ikhtalafat paida hue.
1649 me Descartes ne sawedan ke lye malika kiristina se stak hom ane or us ka niji mualim banne ke lye frakhdalana peshkash qabol ki. Descartes ko garam kamre margob the. Wo subha dair tak sona pasand karta tha. Tahum use ye jan kar parishani hui k malika subha 5 baje us se sabaq lena chahti thi. Descartes ko khof mehsos hua k subha ki yakh hawa use mar dale gi, or aesa hi hua. Thore hi arse bad use namonia ho gya. Febuary 1650 me wo fot hua jabke use sawedan pohnche sirf 4 mah hue the. Descartes ne mujrid zindagi guzari. Tahum us ki ek najaiz beti bhi thi jo bad qismati se choti umar me hi fot ho gai.
Descartes ke falsafa pr us ke kai ham asron ne sakht tanqid ki. Kuch is lye q k unhen ahsas tha k ye dairwi dalil pr mabni hai. bad ke falasfa ne us ke nizam falsafa me mutadid isqam ki nishandahi ki. Tahum aaj bhi chand ahal ilm us ke afkar ka tehe dil se difa karen ge. Ek falsafi ki ahmiyat us ke fikri nizam ki dursti pr hi munhasir nahi hoti, zyada waqat ke hamil us ke khayalat hain. Ya use yun kaha ja sakta hai k wo tasawerat zyada aham hain jihen dosre afrad ne us ki tehriron se akhaz kya. Un khayalat ki asar paziri asal ahmiyat ki hamil she hai.
Kher kam az kam Descartes ke 5 tasawerat to aese hai jinhon ne europi fikar pr ghehre asarat muratab kye.
(1)        Kainat ke mutaliq us ka mechanici nuqtae nazar.
(2)        Scienci tehqiqat ki taraf us ka musbat rawaiya.
(3)        Science me riyaziyat ke istamal pr us ka israr.
(4)        Ibtadai tashkik me us ki ragibat.
(5)        Epitemology pr us ki tawaja ka inkar.

 
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