Sikandar E Azam
(Biography)

 
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Sikandar-e-Azan or Alexdender the great was born on July 356 BC. He was the famous person of his time and also memorable till now. His father name was Macedon and he was the King of his time, his mother name Olymapias. He was died on 323 BC. In this page you will find and read Sikandar E Azam Alexander biography in Urdu Hindi and Roman Urdu.

Dunyae qadim ka azim fatah sikandar e azam macedonia ke darulkhilafa pella me 356 qabal masih me paida hua. Us ka bap badshah filip doim sahih maino me gair mamoli qabiliyat or basirat ka hamil insan tha. Filip ne maqdoniya ki foj me tosi ot tanzim paida ki or use ek ala darje ki jangju taqat me tabdil kar dya. Is taqat ko us ne pehli bar unan ke shumali hiso ko fatah karne me istamal kya. Phir wo janub ki taraf barha or unan ke beshtar hisa pr qabiz ho gya. Bad azan filip ne unani shehri riyasat ki ek anjuman tashkil di jis ka wo sarbarah tha. Wo unan ke mashriq me wasi or ariz irani saltanat pr hamla ki tayariam karne laga. 336 qabal masih me jab is yurish ka agaz hua faqat 46 sal ki umar me filip ko qatal kar dya gya.
Bap ki mot ke bad sikandar ki umar 20 baras thi. Tahum wo kisi dushwari ke bagair us ki jaga takht iqtadar pr barajman hua. Filip ne apne bete ki janshini ke lye rahen hamwar kar di thi or nojawan sikandar ko ala askari tabiyat se less kya tha. Us ki zehni tarbiyat ka bhi filip ne khatir khawah ahtamam kya tha. Azim alam arsto ko us ka ataliq muqarar kya gya tha jo dunyae qadim ka sab se azim scientist or falsafi tha.
Unan or shumali elaqajat me jinhen filip ne fatah kya tha logon ne fillip ki fot ko is zere dasti ka choga sar se utar phenkne ka ek behtrin moka jana. Tahum takht nashin hone ke do baras bad hi sikandar ne dono elaqon ko phir se fatah kar lya. Bad azan wo iran ki janib mura.
200 salon me iranion ne ek wasi elaqe pr jo behra rom se hindustan tak muhit tha ek azim saltanat qaim kar rakhi thi. Agarcha irani saltanat ko ab mazi jesa uroj hasil nahi raha tha lekin ye hanoz naqabile taskhir harif tha. Dunya ki wasi tarin taqat war tarin or amit tarin saltanat.
334 qabal masih sikandar iran pr hamla awar hua. Use apni foj ka kuch hisa maqdoniya me intazam or insaram sanbhalne ke lye chorna para. Jis ke bad sirf 35000 fojion ka dasta us ke pas baqi bacha jis ke sath wo iran pr hamla awar hua. Irani fojon ke muqable me ye boht kam foj thin. Is kami ke bawajud sikandar irani fojon ko pe dar pe shikast deta chala gya. Us ki kamyabi ki 3 wajuhat thin. 1st filip ki tayar karda foj irani fojon se kahin zyada tabiyat yafta or munazam thi. 2nd sikandar ek gair mamoli ahliyat ka slar tha galibann tarikh ka sab se bara jangju. 3rd us ki zati shujaat mandi ne bara aham kirdar ada kya. Agarcha wo pichli safon se har marhale pr apni fojon ki rehnumai karta lekin apne khas sawaron ke risala ki qayadat wo khud hi karta. Ye ek pur khatar iqdam hota jis me wo kai martaba zakhmi bhi hua lekin us ke risale ko hosla rehta k is nuqsan me wo apne hise ka pura kirdar ada kar raha hai. wo un se kabhi aesa khatra mol lene ko nahi kehta tha jis se wo khud na guzar sakta ho is ikhlaqi misal ka asar bepayan tha.
Sikandar apne salaron ke sath pehle asiae kochak me dakhil hua or wahan mojud irani fojon ko shikast fash di. Phir wo shumali sham ki taraf mura. Wahan aises ke muqam pr us ne bhari irani fiji jamiyat ko mat di. Wo mazid aage janub ki taraf gya jahan 7 mah ke doraniya ke ek duswar mahasira ke bad us ne mojud labnan ke elaqe me tair nami foneshian qom ke shehar ko fatah kya. Is mahasre ke doran use shah iran ki taraf se ek pegam mosol hua k wo apni nasf saltanat ke badle us se aman muahida karne pr amada tha. Sikandar ke ek sipa salar parmenio ko ye peshkash qabile qabol malom hui “agar sikandar hota to ye peshkash qabol kar leta” us ne kaha:
“han me bhi qabol kar leta agar me parminio hota”sikandar ne jawab dya.
Tair ki fatah ke bad sikandar ne janub ki taraf paish qadmi jari rakhi. Do mah ke mahasre ke bad gaza pr qabza kya. Misar pr kisi hamle ke bagair hi use fatah hasil hui tab apne doston ko aram dene ke lye wo kuch dair misar me thehra. Wo sirf 24 baras ka tha jab us ne firon ka taj pehna or khud ko ek devta qarar dya. Wo apni fojon ke sath asia wapas aya. 133 qabal masih me arbila ki faisla kun jang me us ne irani foj ko mukamal tor pr ukhar kar phenk dya.
Is fatah ke bad wo babil ki taraf barha or irani aham shehron sosa or parsi police se guzra. 30 qabal masih irani badshah darles soim ko us ke apne afsaron ne (ye apne paish ro darles azam se mukhtalif tha) qatal kar dya ta ke ye sikandar ke samne hathyar penk kar apni jan na bacha le. Tahum sikandar ne darles ke janshin ko shikast de kar mar dala. 3 salon pr muhet is jang me us ne tamam mashriq iran pr qasba kya or wasti asia me dakhil ho gya.
Tamam irani saltanat ko apna matih bana kar sikandar apne abai watan lot sakta or apni saltanat ko munazam kar sakta tha. Lekin us ki dunya fatah karne ki hars asoda nahi hui thi. Us ne afganistan ki taraf paish qadmi jari rakhi. Wahan se wo koh hindukash ke raste hindustan me dakhil hua. Magribi hindustan me us ne mutadid fatohat hasil kin. Wo aage mashriqi hindustan ki taraf barhna chahta tha lekin us ke sipahi musalsal kashto khon se thak chuke the. Unhon ne mazid paish qadmi se inkar kar dya. Sikandar ko toan karhan wapas lotna para.
Iran wapas akar sikandar ne agla ek baras apni saltanat or foj ki tanzim me sarf kya. Ye ek bari tanzim no thi. Sikandar ko yakin tha k unani tamadan hi sahih maino me haqiqi tehzib thi. Yahi tamam unani dunya ka nuqtae nazar tha. Hata k arsto ka bhi yahi nuqtae nazar tha. Is ke bawajud k wo tamam irani fojon ko mukamal shikast de chuka tha sikandar ko ahsas hua k irani kisi tor pr wehshi qom nahi the balke infradi tor pr irani boht zahen, qabil or laiq ahtaram the jese unani the. Tab us ne apni saltanat ke un dono hison ko baham madgam karne ka faisla kya or ek mutehdah unani irani tehzib or badshahat ki bunyad rakhi jis ka wo sarbarah tha. Jis had tak hum qayas kar sakte hain wo teh dil se chahta tha k iranion ko unani or maqdiniya ke brabar ki hesiyat or hisa de. Is niyat se us ne iranion ki bari tadad ko apni foj me bharti kya. “us ne mashriq or magrib ki shadi” ke unwan se ek shandar taqrib ka ahtamam bhi kya jis me maqdoniya ke hazaron fojion ki asiai orton se bazabta shadian karwai gain. Us ne apni ek asiai shehzadi se shadi ho chuki thi lekin us ne darles ki beti se bhi shadi ki.
Ye amar wazah hai k sikandar apni us munazam foj ke sath mazid fatohat hasil karne ka mansuba rakhta tha. Hum jante hain k us ka arab or irani saltanat ke shumali elaqon pr hamla karne ka irada tha. Us ka ye mansuba bhi tha k wo hindustan pr charhai kare ya rom, karthej or behra rom ke magribi elaqon ko fatah kare. Jese bhi us ke mansube hon hum jante hain k is ke bad us ne koi jang nahi lari. 323 qabal masih june ke awail me babil me sikandar achanak bimar ho gya or sirf 10 roz bad hi dunyae fani se koch kar gya. Tab us ki umar 33 baras thi.
Sikandar ne kisi ko apna janshin mutakhab nahi kya. So us ki mot ke bad iqtadar ke lye bahami chapqalishen shuru ho gain. Is jango jadal me sikandar ki walda, biwian or bache sabhi qatal ho gae. Payan kar us ki saltanat us ke sipa salaron me taqsim ho gai.
Chunke sikandar apni zindagi me baqabile taskhir raha or jawan mot mara so is bare me mutadid qayas araiyan ki jati hain k agar wo zinda rehta to kya sorate hal hoti? Agar wo apni fojon nke sath behrah rom ke magribi jaziron pr yursh karta qarin qayas yahi tha k wo kamyab rehta. Is sorat me magribi europe ki tamam tarikh yaksar mukhtalif hoti. Aesi qayas araiyan dilchasp zaror hain lekin un ka sikandar ke asarat se kam taluq banta hai.
Sikandar galiban tarikh ka intehai dramai kirdar tha. Us ki zindagi or shakhsiyat me ek tarha ka sehar poshida hai. us ki zindagi ke mutaliq mukhtalif haqaiq bhi dramai noiyat ke hain. Jabke mutadid astor us ke nam se mansob ki jati hain. Ye us ka nasabul ain tha k wo dunya ka sab se bara jangju bane. Wo is ejaz ka istehqaq bhi rakhta tha. Ek sipasilar ki hesiyat se wo ala mansab pr faiz tha. Apni 11 sala askari zindagi me use ek bar bhi shikast na hui.
Lekin is ke sath sath wo ek danishwar bhi tha. Wo arsto ka shagird raha or homar ki shairi se us ne basirat hasil ki. Bilashuba apne is khayal ki bunyad pr k gair unani bhi wehshi aqwam nahi hain wo apni wasat nazari me apne dor ke mutadid unani falsafa se sabqat le jata tha. Lekin digar mamlat me wo isi darja herat angez tor pr tang nazar waqa hua tha. Agarcha us ne doran jang mutadid bar apni zindagi ko jokham me dala lekin us ne apne janshin ka kabhi yakin nahi kya. Us ki yahi gaflat us ki mot ke foran bad us ki saltanat ki azim phot ka sabab bani.
Sikandar ek sehar shakhsiyat ka malik tha. Mutadid mawaqa pr us ka apne maftohin se rawaiya bara frakhdana or silahjoyana raha. Dosri taraf wo ek tangkhu mizaj ke sath khud parast bhi tha. Ek moka pr sharab noshi ke doran us ne apne ek karibi rafiq calaits ko qatal kar dya tha. Jis ne ek bar us ki jan bhi bachai thi.
Hitler or nepolian ki manind sikandar ne bhi apni nasal pr bepanah asarat chore. Tahum indono ki nasbat sikandar ke asarat kam umar sabit hue. Jis ki waja se us dor ke safar or ablag ke mehdud zarae the jinhon ne dunya me us ke asarat ke phelao pr qadgan lagai.
Majmoi tor pr sikandar ki fatohat ka sab se aham asar unani or wasti mashriqi tehzibon ka baham karib ho jana tha jis se wo dono ek dosre se mustafid hue. Sikandar ki zindagi me or us ke bad unani tamadan shatabi se iran, meso potimya, sham, yahodah, or misar me phel gya. Sikandar se pehle unani tehzib ka un elaqon me nafoz boht sust ro tha. Sikandar hi ke bais is tamadan ko hindustan or wasti asia me farog pane ka moka mila jese us se qaballl mummmkiiin na huaaa tha. Tahum teeehzibiii asar or   nafoz ek yaktarfa   amal nahi tha. Sikandar ki wafat ke foran bad ki sadion me jise helyani dor kaha jata hai mashriqi fikar bilkhasos mazhabi khayalat unani dunya me aam hue. Ye helyani tamadan hi tha jis me unani or ghehre mashriqi asarat mojud the or jis ne alial akhir rom ko mutasir kya.
Apni hayat me sikandar ne 20 se zaid naye shehron ki bunyaden istawar kin. In me intehai aham misar me sikandar ya ka shehar hai jo jald hi dunya ke mumtaz shehron ki sif me shumar hone laga or ilm or tehzib ka ghehwara ban gya. Elawa azin afganistan ke shehar hirat or qandhar bhi aham shehron ki fehrist me muqam pa gae.

 
sikandar e azam history in urdu
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