Thomas Jefferson
(Biography Of Thomas Jefferson)

 
Home Biography<<
 

thomas jefferson history, thomas jefferson history summary, thomas jefferson biography essay, thomas jefferson biografia, thomas jefferson birth date, thomas jefferson birthday.

Thomas Jefferson was born on 13 April 1743, his father name was Peter Jefferson and his mother name was Jane Randol and her father was a captain, he was the third president of United state of America, also did job in different post or Government offices, in other word we can say that he was served his all life for his country and nation, he was died on 4 March 1809. In this page you will find and read biography of thomas jefferson biografia.

Thomas Jefferson books

  • the inaugural addresses of President Thomas Jefferson 1801 and 1805
  • jefferson himself
  • jefferson and madison on the separation of church and state
  • citizen jefferson
  • jefferson on jefferson
  • thomas jefferson architectural drawings
  • the wisdom of thomas jefferson
  • thomas jefferson his words and vision
  • thomas jefferson political writings
  • ye will say i am no christian
  • jefferson's literary commonplace book
  • light and liberty
  • the quotable jefferson
  • a summary view of the rights of british america
  • notes on the state of virginia

Riyasat hae mutehda america ka tisra sadar or elan nama azadi ka musanif Thomas Jefferson virginia me “Shadwell” me 1743 me paida hua. Us ka bap adorsior or kamyab kashtkar tha jo apne bete ke lye virasat me bari jagir chor kar mara. Jefferson ne “collage of william and meri” me 2 sal talim hasil ki. Tahum degree hasil kye bagair talim adhori chor di. Bad azan wo kai sal qanon ka mutala karta raha. 1767 me wo virginia “bar” ka rukun ban gya. Agle sal wo bator wakil or kashtakar kaam karta raha. Wo “house of berjesz” ka bhi rukun ban gya jo virginia ki qanon saz majlis ka ek adna hisa tha. Jefferson ne pehla aham mazmon “bartanvi america ke haqoq ka ek ajmali jaiza” 1774 me likha. Agle baras wo dosri bareazami congres ke lye virginia ke wafad me shamil ho gya. 1776 me us ne azadi ka elan nama tehrir kya. Usi baras wo virginia ki majlis qanon sazi me wapas agya. Jahan us ne mutadid bunyadi aslahi iqdamat ki manzori me aham kirdar ada kya. Us kin 2 aham tajawiz ye thin mazhabi azadi ke lye virginia ka ain or ilm ke mazid amomi farokht ke lye masoda qanon jis ka taluq awami talim se tha.
Talim pr Jefferson ki tajawiz yun thin.: awami bunyadi talim sab ke lye qabile hasol ho. Riyasati university banai jae jis me fatin log ala talim hasil kar saken. Talib ilmon ko wazifon ke ajza ka nizam banaya jae. Tab virginia ki hakumat ne us ke talimi mansuba ko qabol nahi kya. Halanke isi tarha ke mansube bad azan karib sabhi riyasaton ne apnae.
Mazhabi azadi ke mutaliq ain sazi khas ahmiyat ki hamil hai q k is se mukamal mazhabi rawadari ka rawaiya apnaya gya or mazhab or riyasat me mukamal alehdgi paida hui. (is se qabal angrezi kalisa virginia me nehayat mustehkam girja tha). Jefferson ki tajwis ki boht mukhalifat bhi hui lekin virginia ki majlis qanon se alial akhir use 1786 me manzor kar lya. Karin inhi nazaryat ko digar riyasaton ke haqoq ke masodat qanon me bhi apnaya gya or americi ain me bhi inhen jaga mili.
1779 se 1781 tak Jefferson virginia ka governor raha. Phir wo siyasi zindagi se ritair ho gya. Apni retairment ke doran us ne apni wahid itab “virginia ki riyasat se mutaliq chand nikat” tehrir ki. Is kitab me digar amor ke elawa Jefferson ki gulami ke qanon ke khilaf wazah rae mojud hai. 1782 me Jefferson ki biwi ka intaqal hua.(wo 10 sal baham rahe or un se 6 bache hue). Halanke tab wo tahal jawan tha lekin us ne dosri shadi nahi ki.
Jald hi Jefferson ne retairment ko tark kya or congres me shamil ho gya. Wahan school ke asharyan nizam ke mutaliq us ki tajwiz ko manzor kar lya gya. Jabke ozan or pemanon ke lye ashari nizam ki us ki tajwiz ko rad kar dya gya tha. Us ne ek or tajwiz bhi di jis ke natije me tamam riyasaton me gulami pr imtana qaim ho sakta tha lekin sirf ek vote ki bunyad pr ye manzor na ho saki. 1784 me Jefferson ek sifarti dore pr france gya. Wahan wo banjaman frenklen ke foran bad americi safir bana. France me wo 5 baras raha. Is doran me america me us ki amad mojudgi me americi ain ka masoda tayar or manzor hua. Jefferson ne ain ke haq me vote dya. Halanke digar mutadid afrad ki tarha us ka bhi ye khayal tha k is me haqoq ka masoda bhi shamil hona chahye tha.
1789 ke awakhir me Jefferson america wapas aya. Jald hi use mulk ka pehla “riyasati secretry” muntakhab kar lya gya. Thore hi arse bad kabina me Jefferson or aligezendar hemeltan ke darmiyan shadid tanaza paida hua. Mokharul zikar secretry khazana tha or us ka siyasi nuqtae nazar Jefferson se yaksar mukhtalif tha. Qomi satah pr hemeltan ki policiyon ke hamiyon ne akhir mil kar ek “federlisist party” qaim kar li. Jabke Jefferson ki policiyon ke taraf daron ne mil kar democratic repblekan party ka sang bunyad rakha jo bad azan democratic party ke nam se marof hui.
1796 me Jefferson sadarat kelye umidwar tha lekin wo janm adams ke bad dosre darje pr aya. Us dor ke ain ke sharait ke mutabiq wo naib sadar ban gya. 1800 me us ne dobara sadar ke lye intekhab lara or is bar use adams pr kamyabi hasil hui.
Bator sadar Jefferson ka apne sabqa mukhalifin ke sath rawaiya motadal or dostana tha. Yun us ne america ke lye ek qabile taqlid misal qaim ki. Apne dairpa asarat ke hawale se us ki hakumat ka sab se numaya karnama louisiana purchase ka waqya tha. Jis ne america ke ruqbe ko yakbargi dogna kar dya. Tarikh me elaqon ka galiban sab se bara pur aman intaqal tha. Jis ne america ko ek bari taqat bana di. Or jis ke nataij boht dor ras the. Agar hum ye man len “louisiana purchase” ke lye wahid zimedar Jefferson hi tha to phir is fehrist me boht pehle shumar hona chahye tha tahum mera khayal hai k francici rehnuma napoleon bona part jis ne ye elaqa america ko farokht karne ka aham tarin fesla kya darasal is waqya ka asal zimadar tha. Agar america is muahide ka sehra kisi ke sar bandhna chahye to wo Jefferson nahi hai. jis ne kabhi itni bari farokht ke lye koshish nahi ki baljke is ki bajae peres me americi safir robert longistan or jems monro ne jab is gair mamoli sode ka imkan mehsos kya, sifarti mashware dye or is bepayan hise ke hasol ke lye muzakirat kye (ye bat aham hai k Jefferson ne jis ne apna kutna khud likha apne aham karnamon me louisiana ki farokht ka zikar tak nahi kya).
1804 me Jefferson dobara sadar muntakhab hua, tahum 1808 me us ne tisri bar intekhabat me hisa lene se inkar kar dya or yun jorj washingtan ki qaim karda misal pr amal kya. 1809 me wo retaired ho gya jabke bad me us ki wahid hakumati sargarmi virginia ki university qaim karna thi. Akhir us ne apne talimi mansube ke ek hise ko jo us ne 43 baras qabal pesh kya tha amli tor pr muntabiq hote dekha. Jefferson 4 july 1926 ko fot hua jab elan nama azadi ki 50th birthday manai ja rahi thi. Us ne 83 baras ki ek bhar pur or asoda khatir zindagi guzari. Apne siyasi johar khudad ke elawa Jefferson me mutadid digar osaf hamida bhi the. Use 5 ya 6 zabanon pr abor tha. Use fitri science or riyaziyat me dilchaspi thi. Wo ek kamyab kashtkar tha. Jo science kashtkari ka hami tha. Wo ek karigar, mamoli sa mojid or mahir tamirat bhi tha.
Apni in gairb mamoli shakhsi safat or jawahir tabai ke tanazir me tarikh pr us ke haqiqi asarat ka andaza lagana sehal hai. us ki asal ahmiyat ka tain karte hue hamen bat ko elan nama azadi se shuru karna chahye. Pehli qabile gor bat ye hai k elan mana azadi america ke zabta qawanin ka hisa nahihai. In ki bunyadi ahmiyat americi soch ke ek izhar ki hesiyat se hai. mazid barhan is me bayan kye gae khayalat Jefferson hi ki nahi hain, balke beshtar jan lak ki tehriron se akhaz karda hain. Elan nama koi haqiqi falsafa nahi hai. na hi is ki koi mansha hai. balke ye pehle se americon ke mane hue khayalat or afkar ka malakhs hai.
Na hi Jefferson ki elan nama ki jo sheli nasar se mutasir ho kar america ne azadi ke elan ka fesla kya. Inqalabi jang 1775 me shuru hui (elan nama azadi ke karib ek baras peshtar ) leksengtan or concard ki jangen lari gain. In jangon ke bad chand mahino me anerici coloniyon ne ek aham tarin fesla kya. Kya inhen mukamal khud mukhtari ka mutalba karna chahye, ya wo bartanvi hakumat se samjhota kar len? 1776 ke mosam bahar me bareazami congres me bunyadi melan awalul zikar tajwiz ko manne ki taraf tha. Jefferson ne nahi balke richard henryly (virginia) ne 7 june ko na zabta tor pr ye tajwiz pesh ki k coloniyon ko bartania se apni azadi ka elan kar dena chahye. Congres ne “li” ki tajwiz pr rae shumari ko chand hafton ke lye mokhar kar dene ka fesla kya. Ek company tashkil di gai jis ka sarbarah Jefferson tha or jis ka kaam is doran me khud mukhtari ke elan ki wajuhat pr mushtamil ek awami dastawiz tayar karna tha. (company ke digar arakin ne danishmandana tor pr Jefferson ko azadi ke sath ye dastawiz tayar karne ki ijazat de di). 1st july ko congres ne “li” ki tajwiz pr phir se gor shuru kya. Agle roz us pr rae shumari ke natije me khud mukhtari ka aham fesla kya gya. Is rae shumari ke bad hi Jefferson ke masoda pr behas hui. Chand taramim ke sath 2 din bad 4 july 1778 ko congres ne use manzor kar lya.
Bilfarz agar ye man bhi lya jae k elan nama azadi is darja waqi karnama nahi hai jesa kuch log sochte hain. Is sorat me bhi kya Jefferson ke digar karname use is fehrist me jaga pane ka haqdar qarar nahi dete? Apni kutub ki tehrir me Jefferson ne apne do dogar karnamon ka zikar kya hai jo us ke khayal me yad rakhe jane ke qabil hain. In me se ek to us ka virginia university ke bani hone ka kirdar hai. agarcha ye ek qabile tehsin bat hai lekin ye bat is fehrist ke lye us ke jumla ejaz me boht mamoli izafa karti hai. dosri kamyabi “mazhabi azadi ke lye virginia ka ain” ki tasnif hai. ye karnama bhi aham hai. Jefferson se pehle mitadid aham falasfa ne riyasaton me mazhabi rawaadri ke tasawer ke farokh pr zor dya hai jese jan lak or voltior. Tahum Jefferson ke masoda ain in policiyon se qadre aage ki bat karta hai. jis ki himayat jan lak ne ki thi. Mazid ye k Jefferson ek fal siyasat dan tha jo apni tajawiz ko qanon banane me kamyab ho gya. Jefferson ki tajwiz ne digar riyasaton ko ek misal faraham ki or inhon ne azadi ke ain manzor kye.   
Is se ek sawal paida hota hai “haqoq ke wafaqi ain” ki manzori me Jefferson ka kis qadar kirdar tha. Jefferson un logon ka numainda tha jo “haqoq” ka ain manzor karwana chahte the. Bilashuba wo is gro ka ek mufakir rehnuma tha. Lekin Jefferson jo 1784 se 1789 tak mulk se bahar raha. “aini ajlas” ke inaqad ke forabn bad zahir hone wale fesla kun dor me “haqoq” ka masoda manzor karwane ke lye jadojehad nahi kar sakta tha. Ye jems medisan hi tha jis ne haqiqatan congres ke zarye in taramim ko mumkin banaya. (25 september 1789 ko congres ne Jefferson ke america lotne se pehle in taramim ko manzor kya).
Ye kaha ja sakta hai k ye Jefferson ki sarkari sargarmiyan nahi hain balke us ka rawaiya tha jis ne america pr ghehre asart muratab kye. Tahum is amar me hatmi bat nahi kahi ja sakti k Jefferson ke tafakirat ko americi awam ne kis had tak qabol kya hai. mutadid afrad jo Jefferson ko boht ezat dete hain wo is se qatai mukhtalif policiyon ki himayat karte hain. Misal ke tor pr Jefferson ko hamari mojuda aslah me “mukhtasar hakumat” pr bara israr tha. Us ke iftatahi khutba se ek khas peragraph ye hai:
“ ek nada or kifayat shar hakumat” jo logon ko ek dosre ko zakhmi karne se baz rakhe gi jo inhen apni sanat kari or behtari ke lye pas karne ki azadi de gi. Ho sakta hai Jefferson ka nuqtae nazar durst ho lekin guzishta 50 barson me hone wale intakhabat se zahir hota hai k is ke afkar se americi awam ki aksaryat mutafiq nahi hai. ek or misal ye hai k Jefferson ne is khayal ki bari mukhalifat ki k ain ki tashrih ka hatmi ikhtayar supereme court ke pas hai jo kisi qanon ko gair aini qarar de sakti hai chahe use congres ne manzor hi q na kar lya ho us ka khayal tha k aesa qanon jamhori hakumat ke asolon ki roh ke munafi hai.

 
thomas jefferson biography in hindi
Shanimuzik