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Voltaire was born on 21 November 1694 in France, he was one of the famous frence philosopher, who gave a new direction to spend the life, he was a historian who told different interesting knowledge about the history, he was on of the famous writer of his time, he was died on 1694.. In this page you will find and read voltaire biography summary.
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Voltaire

(Biography Of Voltaire)

 

Born Date: 21th November 1694 Paris, France

Date Of Death: 30th May 1778, Paris France

Real Name: Francois Marie Arouet

Voltaire Books list

  • memoirs of the life of monsieur de voltaire
  • selected writings everyman's library
  • political writings
  • the complete works of voltaire
  • philosophical letters
  • treatise on tolerance
  • letters on the english
  • elements of the philosophy of newton
  • dictionnaire philosophique
  • candide
  • zadig

Francois meri aroit jo apne farzi nam voltaire se zyada marof hai francici khurdafrozi ki tehrik ki ek mumtaz shakhsiyat hai. ek shair, darama nigar, mazmon nigar, novel nigar, afsana nigar, morkh or falsafi ki hesiyat se voltaire azad fikar ka ek bara maslah tha.
1694 me voltaire peres me paida hua. Us ka taluq ek mutawast gharane se tha. Us ka bap wakil tha jawani me voltaire peres me “lois li grand” ke ek yasoi colage me dakhil hua. Bad azan kuch arsa us ne qanon ka mutala kya. Lekin jald hi use tark kar dya. Peres me jawani me hi wo ek mazla sanj or bago bahar shakhsiyat ke tor pr marof ho gya. Us ke chutkale tez hote or ashar tanziya. Khas tor pr nizame hakumat qabal inqalab me aesi tarari khatar nak sabit ho sakti thi. Siyasi shairon ki padash me voltaire ko giraftar kar ke bestail me qed kar dya gya jahan wo karib sal bhar raha. Wahan use itni fursat mili k wo ek henriade likh saka jo bad azan be panah mashor hui. 1718 me qed se reha hone ke foran bad us ka natak (oedipe) peres me khela gya. Jahan use boht shohrat mili. 24 baras ki umar me voltaire mashor ho gya. Baqya 60 baras wo france ki ek mumtaz adbi shakhsiyat bana raha.
Voltaire ki tarari sirf sirf alfaz tak mehdud nahi thi wo paise ke mamle me bhi tez tarar tha. wo batadrij ek amir admi ban gya. 1726 me use mushkilat ka samna hua voltaire khud ko apne dor ki pur mazah or zahin fasihulbayan shakhsiyat sabit kar chuka tha. Lekin is me khas inkasar ki kami thi jo francici ashrafia ke khayal me awamul nas me zaror honi chahye. Is mamle pr voltaire or aese hi ek rais chaolairdy rohan ke bich tanaza uth khara hua. Jis me voltaire ki tanzbayani ne medan mar lya. Tahum is ke foran bad chaolair ne chand bad masho ke zarye us ki thukai karwai. Use bestail me qed kar dya gya jahan use is shart pr rehai mili k wo france se chala jae. Wo englistan chala gya. Jahan wo karib 2 ½ baras raha.
Englistan me voltaire ka qayam us ki zindagi ka ek aham waqya tha. Us ne angrezi bolna or parhna sikhi. Marof angrezon ki tehriron ko bagor parha. In me jan lak, france bekan, aizek newton or willium shapspear shamil hain. Wo us dor ke mutadid angrez ahal fikro danish se mutaruf hua. Voltaire shakspear or angrezi science or tajurbiyat pasandi se boht mutasir tha. Lekin jis she se wo mutasir na hua wo angrezon ka siyasi nizam tha. Angrezi jamhoriyat or shakhsi azadiyan un siyasi halat ka yaksar tazad thin jin se voltaire france me shanasa tha. Koi angrez jagirdar kisi ke khilaf sar kashi ka ilzam laga kar use qed nahi kar sakta. Or bil farz agar koi aesa karta bhi hai to (habeas corpus act) ke tehat adalat foran use churwa le gi.
Voltaire wapas france aya to us ne apni aham falsufana kitab (letters philosophiques) tehrir ki jise amomi tor pr “angrezi zaban ke mutaliq khatot” ke nam se jana jata hai. 1734 me ye kitab shaa hui. Ye francici khurd frozi ki tehrik ka ek haqiqi agaz tha. Is kitab me voltaire ne bartanvi siyasi nizam ka ek muwafiq khaka or jan lak or digar angrez mufakrin ke afkar ka khulasa pesh kya hai. is kitab ki ashaat ne francici waderon ko brangekhta kya. Jald hi voltaire ko peres chorne pr majbor kar dya gya.
Agle 15 baras voltaire ne mashriqi france me saire me guzare jahan wo ek markois (ek nawabi rutba) ki zahin or talim yafta madam duechetlet ka diwana bana raha. 1750 me us orat ki wafat ke ek baras bad proshia ke frederk azam ki zato dawat pr voltaire germany gya. Wahan “post dam” me frederk ke darbar me us ne 3 sal guzare. Shuru me to us ke zahin or zerek frederk se marasim khush gawar rahe lekin phir wo apas me jhagar pare. 1753 me voltaire german se chala gya.
Bad azan wo jenwa ke nazdik ek elaqe me thehra jahan wo francici or german badshahon ke atab se mehfoz tha. Lekin us ki azad khayali ne soizerland ko bhi us ke lye gair muwafiq bana dya. 1758 me wo ek naye elaqe “farne” me gya. Ye francici or soizerland ki sarhadon ke karib waqa hai. yahan us ke pas kisi tarha ki jhagre ki sorat me farar ki 2 rahen khuli thin. Wo 20 sal waha raha musalsal adbi or falsufyana tehriren raqam karta raha. Us ki europe bhar me mufakarin se khato kitabat jari rahi or us se milne wale us se khob mehzoz hote.
In tamam barson me voltaire ki adbi tehriron me koi rakhna na para. Wo ek basyar nawes tha. Galiban is fehrist me sab se zyada basyar nawes musanif. Us ki tehriren 30,000 se zaid safhat pr pheli hui hain. In me henriades, ganai shairi, niji makatib, likabche, novel, afsane, drame or falsafo tarikh pr sanjida kitaben shamil hain.
Voltaire mazhabi rawadari ka zabardast hami tha. Tahum apni umar ki chati dehai me france me protestant perokaron ke qatale aam ke mutadid holnak waqyat hue. Jin se barham ho kar voltaire ne khud ko mazhabi tasub pasandi ke khilaf jehad ke lye waqf kar dya. Us ne mazhabi na rawadari ke khilaf mutadid siyasi kitabche likhe. Wo tamam niji khatot ko in alfaz “ecrasez L infame” pr khatam karta jin ka matlab hai “maton khlaiq ashyao ko khatam karo” jabke voltaire ke lye “ye maton khlaiq” shee mazhabi katar pan or tasub thi.
1778 me jab voltaire 83 baras ka tha. Wo peres wapas aya jahan wo apne naye natak (irene) ke iftatahi show me sharik hua. Bare hajum ne use francici fard frozi ka “azim buzrug” keh kar taliyan bajaen. Secron mutarfin ne jin me banjuman frenklin bhi shamil tha us se mulaqat ki. Lekin voltaire ka arsa hayat kam reh gya tha. 30 may 1778 ko wo peres me inteqal kar gya. Ahal kalisa ke khilaf apni tehriron ke bais peres me use masihi tariqe se na dafnaya ja saka. Tahum 13 baras bad francici inqalab ke fathin ne us ki qabar khod kar us ki baqyat nikalen or inhen peres me penthain ke muqam pr dobara dafan kya.
Voltaire ki kalyat is darja zakhim hain k in me se aham tarin ki fehrist is mukhtasar mazmon me dena dushwar hai. un ke unwanat se kahin zyada aham wo mozoat hain jin ka us ne tahayat parchar kya.
Us ka ek pur zor moqif bolne or sahafat ki azadi ki zarorat se mutaliq tha. Ek jumla us se mansub kya jata hai “main tumhari rae se mutafiq nahi hon lekin main tumhari azadi rae ke haq ke lye akhiri sans tak jang karon ga” agarcha voltaire ne kabhi ye gair mamoli jumla is tor nahi likha. Lekin ye us ke majmoi rawaye ka aina dar hai.
Voltaire ka ek dosra aham moqif mazhabi azadi ke mutaliq tha. Apni zindagi me us ne mustaqil mijazi se mazhabi adam bardasht or aziyat rasai ki shadid mukhalifat ki. Agarcha voltaire khuda parast tha lekin wo intehai mazhabi mutaqadat ki mukhalifat karta tha. Or ye moqif ikhteyar kya k munazam mazhab ek makar hai.
Bilkul fitri tor pr voltaire ne kabhi ye taslim nahi kya k france ki khatab yafta ashrafia kisi aetabar se us se behtar hai. is ke qarin ne jana k ye nam nehad “badshahon ka alhami haq” ek yaksar gair maqoliyat hai. voltaire jadid dor ke jamhoriyat pasand se boht mukhtalif hai (wo ek aslah yafta badshah ko tarjih deta tha). Us ke tasawerat ka bunyadi nuqta ye tha k morosi badshahat na jaiz hai. so ye amar baise tajub nahi hai k us ke mutadid perokar jamhoriyat ke hami the. Us ke siyasi or mazhabi tasawerat khurd afrozi ki tehrik ki bunyadi ro me shamil the. 1789 ke inqalab france ke waqo me un ka kirdar boht aham hai.
Voltaire khud ek scientist nahi tha. Lekin science me use ghehri dilchaspu thi or wo france bekan or jan lak ke tajurbiyat pasandana nuqtae nazar ka katar hami tha. Wo ek qabil or sanjida morkh bhi tha. Us ki aham kitabon me dunya ki tarikh pr ek kitab “aqwam ki adat” or “roh pr ek mazmon” ke unwan se hai. ye kitab digar mutabar tawarikh se 2 hawalon se mukhtalif hai. awal voltaire ne ye taslim kya k europe dunya ka ek mukhtasar hisa hai. so us ne kitab ke bare hisa ko asiai tarikh ke lye makhtas kya. Doim voltaire ne ye moqif ikhtayar kya k amomi tor pr tehzibi tarikh, siyasi tarikh se kahin zyada waqat ki hamil hai. yahi waja hai k us ki kitab me badshahon or un ki jangon ki nasbat samaji or mashi sorate ahwal or fanun latifa ke irtaqa ko mozo behas banaya gya hai.
Ek had tak us ne digar ahbab ke tasawerat mustar lye jese jan lak or france bekan wagera se. unhen apne tor pr bayan kya or maqbol banaya. Tahum kisi bhi dosre shakhs ki kawishon ki nasbat ye voltaire ki tehriren hi thin jin ki badolat jamhoriyat, mazhabi rawadari or mazhabi azadi ke tasawerat france bhar me aam hue, or is hawale se tamam europe me bhi…….. agarcha francici khurd afrozi ki tehrik me digar ahbab ka nam bhi aham hain jese dedrod,dealm bert, roso, montiskio wagera. Ye kehna baja hai k voltaire is tehrik ka eki mumtaz qaid tha. Pehli bat to ye hai k apne tez dhar adbi aslob tawilul umri or basyar nawesi ke sabab use qarain ka wasi halqa muyasar aya jo kam hi adibon ko mila ho ga. Dosri waja ye hai k us ke tasawerat ne khurd afrozi ki tehrik ki tashkil ki or tisri waja ye hai k apne dor ke tamam aham afrad pr voltaire ka pala bhari raha. Montiskio ki azim kitab “qawanin ki roh” 1748 tak manzare aam pr nahi aai. Jabke marof “encyclopedia” 1751 me shaa hua. Roso ka awalin mazmon 1750 me chapa. Voltaire ki kitab “angrezi zaban pr chand makatib” ka san ashat 1734 hai. us se 16 baras pehle hi wo maqboliyat khaso aam hasil kar chuka tha.   

Mukhtasar novel “candide” ke elawa voltaire ki digar tehriren aaj kam ishtiyaq se parhi jati hain. 18th sadi esvi me un ke qarain ki tadad boht zyada thi. Voltaire ne rae aama ki is tor tabdili me aham kirdar ada kya jo alial akhir inqalab france pr muntaj hui. Tahum us ke asarat france tak hi mehdud na rahe. Thomas Jefferson, jems medisan or banjuman frenklin jesi americi shakhsiyat us ki tehriron se bakhobi agah thin. Jabke voltaire ke beshtar khayalat banjuman frenklin americi siyasi riwayat ka jazo lapanfk ban gae.