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In this page you will find and read biography of William Shakespeare in Urdu Hindi and Roman Urdu.
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William Shakespeare

(Biography Of William Shakespeare)

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Azim bartanvi drama nigar or shair willam shakeshpere ko amomi tor pr dunya ke azim tarin musanifin me shumar kya jata hai. Us ki asal shanakht ke hawale se (jis ka tafsili zikar ainda aae ga) khasa ikhtalaf rae mojud hai. Tahum is musanif ke johar khudadad or karnamon ke sabhi ratabul lasan hain. 

William shakshpere ne kam az kam 36 natak likhe jin me Hemeltan, Mekh, King lier, Jlois sessor or othelo jese shahkar 154 sanet ka ek majmoa or chand tawil nazmen shamil hain. Us ki liyaqat, hunarmandi or shohrat ke tanazar me ye amar kuch ajib malom hota hai k Is fehrist me us ka nam pehle q nahi aya. Main ne William shakshperen ko ye darja is lye dya hai q k mere khyal me adbi or fun kar shakhsiyat ka insani tarikh pr nasbatan kamzor asar parta hai.

Ek mazhabi rehnuma, scientist, meham jo ya falsafi ki fitri masaiinsani taraqi ke mukhtalif shobo pr asar andaz hoti rehti hain. Misal ke tor pr scienci hasilat ne mashi or siyasi mamlat ko buri tarha mutasir kya. Or mazhabi aqaid, falsufyana rawaion ot funi kamalat pr bhi asar andaz huin.

Tahum ek marof musawer chahe us ke fun ne bad ke musawarin ke fun pr kese hi ghehre asarat chore hon us ke mosici or adab pr asarat nasbatan kam hon ge. Or isi nasbat se science, meham joi or insani masai ke digar shobon pr to is se bhi kam....... aesi hi qayas arai shairon, drama nigaron or mosicaron ke mutaliq bhi ki ja sakti hai. Bilamom funkar shakhsiyat fun pr hi asar andaz hote hain or sirf isi shoba fun pr jis se wo muliq hon. Yahi waja hai k adab, mosici or digar basri fanon se mutaliq koi shakhsiyat 1st 20 shakhsiyat me shamil nahi hai balke pori fehtist me hi un ki tadad boht mukhtasar hai.

To phir is fehrist me funkar shakhsiyat ka kya jawaz banta hai? Ek jawab to ye hai k imraniyati tanazir me hamara amomi tamadan ek had tak kisi fanon latifa ki paidawar hota hai. Fanon latifa mashare me baham jorne wali lai paida karta hai. Ye koi itefaqi amar nahi hai k fanon har insani tehzib ka ek aham hisa rahe hain.

Mazid barhan fanon latifa se lutf andoz hota har shakhs ki zindagi ka ek khasa hai. Balfaz digar log apna farig waqt kutub bini a musaweronke shahkar ka mushahida karne me sarf karte hain. Chahe us waqt ka joham mosici se lutf uthane me srf karte hain. Hamare digar afal pr koi asar na ho is ke bawajud ye waqt hamari zindagion ki ek masrofiyat ko zahir karta hai. Albata fanon latifa hamari digar sargarmion pr bhi asar andaz hote hain. Balke ek aetabar se hamari tamam zindagi pr. Fanon latifa hamen hamari rohon se baham marbot karte hain. Ye hamare ghehre ahsasat ka izhar bante hain or inhen hamare lye qabile feham banate hain.

Mutadid fani sheh paron ka mozo kam or besh falsufyana basirat ka hamil hota hai jo digar mozoat se mutaliq hamare rawaye ko rukh de sakta hai. Tahum aesa mosici or musawari ki nasbat adbi sheh paron ke mamlat me zyada hote hai. Misal ke tor pr jab romio joliat (act 3 seen 1 ) me shakespere shehzade se kehalwata hai “ qatal na karo, rehamkaro, or jo qatil hain unhen bakhsh do” is khyal se chahe aap mutafiq na hon lekin ye ek tarha ki falsufyana basirat ka hamil hai or kisi dosre fun pare jese “mona leza” ki nasbat ye siyasi rawaiyon ko zyada mutasir karta hai.
 
Ye bat to shak or shoba se manza hai k shakespere tamam adbi hastion me nehayat mumtaz hai. Aaj kam log hi chosar, warjal ya hata k homri ki tehriron ko parhne me dilchaspi lete hain. Bas wahi parhte hain jo nisab me shamil hota hai. Jabke shakespere ke natakon ko aaj bhi aqidat se dekha jata hai. Ebarat me dramai ansar paida karne me shakespere ka koi sani nahi hai. Basa oqat us ke hawale dye jate hainhata k wo log bhi aese hawale dene se baz nahi ate jinhon ne kabhi us ka koi drama dekha hota hai, na parha hota hai, na hi us ki shohrat ko zawal mumkin hai.

4 sadion se is ke dramon ne apne qarin or nazrin ki tawaja ko bandhe rakha hai. Chunke ab tak is ki roshni me koi kami nahi aai so ye farz karna behre kef baja hoga k ainda mutadid sadion me bhi waqt un ki jazbiyat ko mand nahi kar pae ga.

Shakespere ki qadro manzalat ka tajzia karte hue ye amar malhoz khatir rakhna zarori hai k agar wo paida na hota to to ye lazawal drame bhi kabhi na likhe jate. (han har funkar or adib ke mutaliq is se milta julta ek bayan dya ja sakta hai lekin jo az kam tar funkaron ke mamlat me is darja waqi nahi rehta).

Agarcha shakespere ne angrezi zaban me likha lekin wo sahi maino me ek almi shakhsiyt hai. ye almi zaban to nahi lekin angrezi ek almi zaban hone ki haqdar zaror hai. shakespere ki tehriro ke anginat zabano me trajim hue hain or aaj bhi in dramon ko mutadid mumalik me parha or stege pr paish kya jata hai.

Aese marof musanifin ki tadad kam nahi jin ke adbi kath pr adbi naqdin ne sakht jirah ki hai. shakespere ke sath ek mamla nahi hai. us ke fun ne sabhi adbi naqdon se beinteha pazirai hasil ki. Drama nigaron ki naslon ne us ki tehriron ka bagor mutala kya or us ke adbi fazail ki tanqid ki sai ki. Digar musanifin ki tehriron pr zahir hone wale us ke anginat asarat or us ki roz afzon almi shohrat is amar ka ben sabot muhaiya karti hai k william shakespere ko is fehrist me ek khas darja tafwiz kya jae. Tahum ek arsa se shakespere ki shanakht se mutaliq ye masla zere behas hai k wo asal shakhs kon tha jis ne ye adab likha?

Maroja nuqta nazar ke mutabiq (jese main is is kitab ki ashat awal moka pr janibdarana andaz me qabol kar lya tha) ye drame likhne wala shakhs william shakespere hi tha. Jo strat ford on aoun me 1564 ko paida hua or 1616 me chal basa tahum mutshakkin or maroja nuqta nazar ke hamion ke bahimi dalail or brain ka mohtat tajzia karne ke bad main is natija pr pohncha k mutshakkin ke dalail bawazan hain or un ki puri bat me dam kham mojud hai.

Shwahid ka ek daftar mojud hai jo ye bat sabt karta hai k “william shakespere” ek shakhs aedord d weri ka farzi nam tha jo oxford ka 17th nawab tha. Jabke william shakespere mehaz ek dolat mand tajir thajo karobari silsile me landon aya or jis ka dramon ki tasnif me koi taluq nahi tha. (jis ka khandani nam shakespere tha jis me hamza istamal nahi hoti. Bad azan is ka izafa hua). Main ye tajwiz nahi kar raha k d weri ne shakespere ke lye drama likhe. Jis ne un ke mutaliq sari awami pazirai khud hasil ki. Apni zindagi ke doran shakesperein dramon ka musanif tasawer nahi kya jata tha. Na hi us ne kabhi aesa dawa kya ye khyal k shakespere hi azim drama nigar william shakespere hai. 1623 tak samne aya tha jabke shakespere ko mare 7 baras ho chuke the. Tab shakespere ke dramon ka awain bari taqtih wala edition shaa hua. Is kitab ke madiran ne is me dibacha ke tor pr kuch mawad aesa shamil kya jis me ( go ben andaz me to nahi) bare aetamad ke sath ishartan ye kaha gya tha k strat ford on aoun  ka bashinda hi  un dramon ka musanif tha.

Ye aqida samjhne ke lye k un dramon ka asal musanif shakespere hi q hai? zarori hai k pehle maroja nuqta nazar ke mutabiq is ki sawanah umri pr gor kya jae jo yun hai:

Shakespere ka bap ek maldar admi tha. Tahum use kamasparsi ka zamana bhi dekhna para shakespere ki parwarish inhi darmanda halat me hu. Us ne strat ford grammer school me dakhla lya jahan us ke latini or classici adab parha.

18th baras ki umar me us ki waja se ek orat anie hathoe hamla ho gai. Jis se us ne foran shadi kar li. Chand mah bad hi us ne bache ko janam dya. 2 ½ sal bad us ne jurwa bacho ko janam dya. Is tor 21 baras ki umar me shakespere pr ek biwi or 3 bacho ki mali kafalat ki zimedari an pari.

Agle chand baras wo kin mashagil me masrof raha? Hum is bare me kuch nahi jante. Tahum 1590 ki dhai ke shuru me wo london me wo ek adakaron ke tole ka rukan tha. Wo ek kamyab adakar tha lekin jald hi us ne drame or shairi likhne ki taraf tawaja di. 1598 tak wo khud ko azim angrezi musanifin ki sif me khara kar chuka tha. Agle 20 baras wo london me thehra. Is doran me us ne karib 36 darme 154 sonet or chand tawil nazmen likhin. Chand barson me hi wo maldar ho gya. 1597 me us ne strat ford me ek giran qimat ghar kharida. Us ka khandan strat ford ke ghar me makin raha or wo musalsal us ki mali aanat karta raha.

Ajib bat ye hai k us ne kabhi apni kisi tehrir ko nahi chupaya. Chalak nashrin ne un ki tijarati waqat ke paishe nazar in me se karib nasf ko chori chupe chap dya. Halanke in kitabon me tehrifat bhi hoti rehti thin lekin shakespere ne kabhi un ke khilaf koi qanoni chara joi nahi ki.

Karib 1612 me jab wo 48 baras ka tha us ne tasnif or talif se kinara kashi ikhteyar kar li. Wapas strat ford chala gya jahan apni biwi ke sath rehne laga. April 1616 me wo fot hua. Use girja ke sehan me dafnaya gya. Us ke qabar ke kutba pr us ka nam kunda nahi hai. tahum kuch arsa bad us ki qabar ke nazdik dewar pr e takhti nasb kar di gai. Us ki mot se 3 hafte qabal us ne wasiyat likhwai or apni amlak ka beshtar hisa apni bari beti sosna ke nam kar dya. Wo apni olad ke sath us jaga pr rehti rahi hata k 1670 tak wo sabhi yake bad digar chal base.

Ye amar qabile gor hai k is sawanah umri ka e bara hisa us ke musanifin ki zehni ikhtara ka natija hai. misal ke tor pr is bat ka koi sabot majud nahi hai k shakespere ne kabhi strat ford grammer schol me talim hasil ki thi. Na hi wahan kisi ustad ya talib ilm ne hi shakespere ka ustad ya class fellow hone ka kabhi dawa kya. Isi tor ye bhi wazah nahi hai k us ne kabhi adakari ka paisha apnaya.

Badiul nazar me ye maroja katha isi had tak qabile qabol malom hoti hai. lekin jon jon is ka bagor tajzia kya jae is ke isqam khul kar samne ate hain.

Pehla masla to ye hai k jis ka raskh aqida sawanah nigaron ne bhi aetraf kya hai k hamen shakespere ki zindagi ke bare me nehayat kam malomat hasil hain. Itni malomat bhi hasil nahi hain jo aesi mumtaz or qadawar shakhsiyt ke mutaliq kam az kam malom honi chahye. Malomat ki is herat angez qilat ki tajiha paish karet hue log amoman dalil dete hain k.

“us ka zamana 400 sal pehle ka hai. so us ki apni ya us se mutaliq mutadid dastawizat zayah ho gai hain”. Lekin ye nuqta nazar shakespere se dor ke mutaliq hamen malomat ki nehayat galat taswer kashi karta hai.

Wo kisi pasmanda mulk ya kisi dore jahalat ka bashinda to nahi tha. Wo mulk alzabth ke dor me englistan ka basi tha jis ke mutaliq tamam bunyadi dastawizat mehfoz hain. Jab tabaat ka chalan aam tha or khwanda logon ko bhi bohtat thi.bilashuba us ki mutadid dastawizat gum hui hain lekin us dor ki lakhon dastawizat to hamare pas hanoz mehfoz hain.

William shakspere ki zat me is ghehri dilchaspi ke sabab mehqqin ki 3 naslon ne in kawaif ko jama karne me sar tor mehnat ki hai. yani dunya ki intehai marof or fatin shakhsiyt ki zindagi ke mutaliq malomat ikathi karne me -------- is tehqiq ke ek izafi natije ke tor pr unhon ne is dor ke kai aham or mutadid gair aham shairon ke mutaliq malomat ke anbar laga dye hain. Lekin shakspere ke bare me wo jo kuch jama kar sake wo faqat 3 darjan mamoli hawale hain jin se koi ek bhi use shair ya drama nigar sabit karne ko kafi nahi hai.

Shakspere ki zindagi ki nasbat ham digar aham shakhsiyat jese frances bekan, malika alzibath, bin jansan ya andmend shakspere ke bare me kahin zyada malomat rakhte hain. Bilashuba hum jan lili jese kam aham shair ke bare me bhi shakspere se zyada hi jante hain.

Tarikh ke ek azim scientist aizik newton se shakspere ka mawazna boht dilchasp hai. hamare pas newton ki or us ke mutaliq mutadid dastawizat mojud hain (jo shakspere hi ki manind englistan ke ek chote qasbe se taluq rakhta tha). Ye durst hai k newton shakspere se 78baras bad paida hua tha. Hamare pas glageo ke mutaliq tafsili malomat hain (jo usi baras paida hua tha jo shakspere ka san paidaish hai) ya maikal anjilo ke bare me hum zyada jante hain (jo us se 99 baras pehle paida hua) ya hata k bokeseo ke bare me bhi (jo 1313 me paida hua).

Us ke mutaliq ek masla ye bhi hai k london me apne qayam ke doran ye azim drama nigar kahin kisi majlis me dikhai nahi deta shakspere ke bare me ye bhi khyal kya jata hai k us ne 20 baras (1592 – 1612 london me guzare. Lekin is ka koi sabot mojud nahi hai. in 20 barso ke doran kisi ne is gisht posht ke azim drama nigar ko nahi dekha jab log marof adakar rachard  khyal kya jata hai k us ne 20 baras (1592 – 1612 london me guzare. Lekin is ka koi sabot mojud nahi hai. in 20 barso ke doran kisi ne is gisht posht ke azim drama nigar ko nahi dekha jab log marof adakar rachard  beg ko dekhte ya drama nigar bin jansan se mulaqat karte the to ye bhi un ke lye ek yadgar waqya hota. Lekin agar kisi ne in 20 barso me london me shakspere ko stage pr dekha ya us se shairi pr guftago ki, ya us se khato kitabat ki ya us se kisi takrib me ya sar rah mila to kya us ke lye ye bat qatan aham nahi thi k wo use yad rakhta ya likhta.

Mazkora bala haqaiq ki wahid maqol tozih ye hai k william shakspere ek farzi nam tha jo musanif ne apni shanakht makhfi rakhne ki garz se ikhteyar kya. So jo log agar kabhi musanif se mile bhi to unhen ye khyal na hua k wo darasal azim william shakspere se mulaqat kar rahe the. (zahir hai shakspere nami shakhs kisi mushanaha qalmi nam ke zarye kamyabi ke sath chap nahi sakta tha).

Maroja kitab me ek boht bara masla galiban ye bhi hai k strat ford on aoun me shakspere ka rawaya ajib zahir kya gya hai. agarcha shakspere ko englistan  ka azim tarin musanif taslim kya jata hai or wo ek marof adakar bhi tha lekin us ke apne qasbe me koi is mashor aam admi se ashna nahi tha na hius ke mutaliq kahin koi khas hawala milta hai. ye sochna ajib lagta hai k wo strat forf se nikla to maflokul hal tha. Tahum wapsi pr rais ho gya. Ye aesi tabdili hai jo qudrati tor pr ird gird hamsaya daron or azizo aqurba ko mutajasas karti hai. phir bhi ye haqiqat hai k us ki apni zindagi ke doran strat ford me us ke kisi dost ya hamsaya dar or na hi us ke khandan ke kisi fard ne use adakar, drama nigar ya shair ya aesi hi koi adbi hasti ke tor pr taslim kya. Shakspere ke apne hath ke likhe hue dramon ke masode pr ye bat ho sakti hai lekin badqismati se us ke hath se likhe hue ame ka koi masoda dastiyab nahi ho saka na hi koi dosri tehri ya shairi a jazo. Darasal qanoni dastawizat pr chor dastakhaton ke elawa us ki likhai ka koi namona hamare pas mojud nahi hai. koi roznama, koi yad dasht, koi hawalajat, kuch mojud nahi. Us ka koi ek khat bhi bai nahi bacha na koi karobari marasla. ( na hi us ke qadim sawanha nigaron ne us ki tehri ka koi namona paish karne ki zarorat mehsos ki ). Un dastawizat se ye andaza hota hai k ek musanif hona to kaja shakspere mamoli khwanda ya shayad na khawanda admi the.

Ek bat ye bhi hai k shakspere ke waldain, biwi or bache sabhi nakhwanda the. Ye durst hai k admi ko apne waldain ke intekhab ka ikhteyar nahi hai or biwi ka intekhab bhi us ki khwandagi ke elawa kisi digar bina pr hona mumkin hai. lekin shakspere jesa admi jis ke lye lafz ki qadro qimat is tor hai. kya us se tawaqa rakh sakte hain k wo apni olad ko nakhwanda hi parwan charhae ga agar shakspere hi wo shakspere tha to phir wo tarikh ka wahid mumtaz adib hai jis ki olad nakhwanda rahi.

Phir shakspere ki wasiyat ka mamla bhi gore talab hai. asal dastawiz dastiyab hui hai. ye 3 warqi hai is me us ki amlak ki tafsil mojud hai jis me mutadid mal matroka bhi darj hai. lekin is ke kahin kisi nazam, drame, masode ya kisi zere taba kitab ya ashati haqoq wagera ka koi zikar nahi hai. na hi is me zati kutub ya dastawizat ke mutaliq kuch tafsil darj hai. aesa koi ishara wahan mojud nahi k wo apna koi drama shaa karwana chahta hai (jabke tab kam az kam 20 drame gair matboa the). Na is bat ki taraf koi ihara mojud hai k us ne zindagi me kabhi koi nazam ya drama likha. Ye ek gair talim yafta or mumkina tor pr chate anparh tajir ki wasiyat hai.

Hamen ye bat bhi zehan nashin rakhni chahye k us dor me tabqa shaira apne kisi shair dost ke marne pr pur takaluf matmi jalos ka aehtamam karte or tawil qaside raqam karte the. Jabke 1616 me shakspere ki wafat pr englistan ke kisi adib ki koi tehrir mojud nahi hai. hata k bin jansan ki bhi nahi jis ne bad azan khud ko william shakspere ka boht bara madah or dost zahir kya. Us ne shakspere ki mot prv afsos ke chand kalmat tak nahi likhe. Zahir hai us dor ke digar shaira ke lye is azim drama nawes or strat ford ke is shakhs ke bich koi mumasilat mumkin nahi thi.

Mere zahan me ye tamam dalail wazah hain. Na hi ab is bat ko sabit karne ke lye mazid kisi sabot ki zarorat hai k shakspere asal drama nawes nahi tha or ye k william shakspere ek farzi nam tha jo musanif ne apni ahanakht chupane ke lye ikhteyar kya. Tahum shakspere ke ek musanif hone ki galat fehmi ke khilaf mazid thos shawahid bhi mojud hain.

Misal ke tor pr ye amar bayan kya gya tha k beshtar drama nawes or adib apni tehriron me apni zindagion ke tajurbat bhi bayan karte hain (aksar yahi waqoat kahani ka bunyadi hisa tartib dete hain). Lekin shakspere ke drame aese waqoat or halat ke bayan se yaksar tahi hain. Jinhen hum shakspere ke zati tajurbat pr mehmol kar saken.

Ek dalil ye bhi hai k william shakspere ek intehai talim yafta insan tha. Us ki zaban dani mulahiza kijye (jo kisi bhi drama nawes se kahin zyada umda hai). use francici or latini dono zabano pr abor tha. Qanoni istalahat pr use dark tha. Or classici adab ka us ka bepanah mutala tha. Tahum sabhi is bat pr itefaq karte hain k shakspere kabhi university me dahil nahi hua or jesa k mudarja bala sator me arz kya gya k ye bat bhi mashkok hai k wo kabhi kisi grammer school me dakhil hua tha.

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