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John Locke was the most popular, modern, 17th century philosopher. He had English nationality and known as the father of classical liberalism. His main interest was in metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of mind, education and economics. His monumental essay concerning human understanding aims to determine the limits of human understanding. Locke give us a theory of natural law and natural rights. He had wrote on a lot of topics. In this page you will find and read john locke biography summary in urdu hindi roman.

John Locke ka Siyasi Falsafa

(John Locke Biography)

 

John Locke Book list

  • political writings
  • some thoughts concerning education
  • of the conduct of the understanding
  • the second treatise of government
  • essays on the law of nature

1688 me England me shan-dar inqalab ronoma howa aur bagair kisi khon rezi ke ek badsha ki jaga dosray badsha ko muntakhib ker liya gaya. Yani jemes dom ko takht se hath dhona para aur is mulk me ye ek dastor nazeer qaim hogai ke parilment badsha ko mazul ker sakti hai is ki waja se parliament ke ikhtiyarat me be-panah izafa howa aur wohi saray iktadar aur qoat qabina aur muzahir ban gai. Is inqalab ko her etabar se haq ba-janib  aur jaez thehranay ki koshish na-mwar angrez siyasi mufaqir john lok ne ki.

John lock 29 August 1632 me England ke ek mutwasit ghar me paida howa khana jangi ke dor me is ke walid parliament ki himayat me lar rahay thay. 1952 me wo taleem hasil kernay ke gharz se oxford university me gaya aur is university me is ka taqreer bhi hogaya lakin 1654 me baz siyasi wajud ki bina per isay is jaga se hatana para1666 me is ka taruf leader party ke leader lord eshlay se howa aur is se iske bohat ziyadah dostana taluq hogay. Jab wo bartanwi qabina me lord dhai chansler ke uhday per mawar howa to is ne lock ko hukumat me shamil kiya 1675 wo sarkari uhday per faiz raha. Is ke bad jab lord shift bari ka zawal howa to isay na sirf is uhday se hatana para balkay bhag ker holand me panah leni pari. 1688 ke inqalab hukumat ke bad wo England wapas chala aya. Isay mukhalif sarkari khidmaton per muqarar kiya gaya. Is tarah se isay hukumat amli ke kamo ka tajurba hasil howa. Is zamanay me is ne apni mashhur tasnif “ hukumat per do muqlat” mukamal ki. 1706 me 74 saal ki umar me intaqal hoagaya.

Shan-dar inqalab ko her tarah se jaez tehranay ke ilawa is ne filmer ke badshahon ki khuda-dad-e-hukumat aur hobes ke mutaliqa lfan badshahat ke nazaryo ki pur-zor muzamat ki s ne apni tasnif “hukumat per mukalat” me mumlikat ke agaz, is ki mahiyat aur is ke faraez ke baray me izhar khiyalat kiya. Agar cha wo filmer ke nazeryon ko is laik nahi samjhta tha ke in ki mukhalifat keray phir bhi apni tasnifat ke pehlay hisay me. Is ne is ke dawo ki puri tardid ki aur inhe galat tehraya. Is ki tasnif ka dosra hissa taqreban puray ka pura  hobes ke siyasi falsafa ki mukhalifat me hai is ne wohi sari dalilein aur islahat paesh ki jin ke bunyad me hobes ne ghaer mehdod aur mutaliq-ulnanbadshahat ka nazarya paeh kiya tha lakin lack ne inhe dalilon se bilkul dosray natijay nakialay lakin hobes ki tarah wo bhi tarekh ko bilkul nazar andaz kerta hai go apnay zamanay ke eham siyasi maslon ko nazar andaz nahi kerta.

Hobes ke nazdik samaji muhaiday ke honay walay aur mumlikat ko wajod me anay se pehlay insane fitri zindagi basar kerta tha  aur is ki sirshat ki waja se ye zindagi daimi aur mustakil jang ke siwa aur kuch na thi mumlikat ke qayam ne insan ko isey nijat dilai aur muqtadar-eala moqarar howa lakin is ko her waqt is ka andesha laga rehta hai logo ki mukhalfat ya bagawat is ki qowat ko khatam ker de gi aur logon ko phir is daimi jang me mubtala ker de gi.. jis se wo nijat hasil kerna chahtay hain. logon ko is khatray se mehfoz rakhnay ke liye hobes ne muqtadar-e-ala ko iqtadar ko aur bohat ziyadah barhaya aur is ghaer mashrot ata’at ko aam logo ka eham tareen farz karar diya. Is ke sath is ne fitri zindagi ki bohat khatarnak aur bhiyanak taber logo ke samnay paesh ki aur is ke sath qanun-e-fitrat ki is tarah se tashri ki ke is ka istadlal bilkul sahi maloom honay laga. Lock ne is ke jawab me fitri zindagi ka bilkul hi mukhtalif naqsha paesh kiya aur qanon fitrrat ki bilkul hi mukhtalif tabeer paesh ki hobes ke nazdeek fitri zindagi tamam ter be-itminan, mustaqil shar-o-fasad ka nam tha ber aks is ke lock ke nazdek is zindagi me her tarah ke aman aur chen aram aur azadi mayasar thi.qanon-e-fitrat ka bunyadi asol ye tha ke insan dosron ke sath wesa hi salok keray jesa wo chahta hai ke dosray is ke sath kerein yahi asol logo ko jhagron aur fasad se mehfoz rakhta hai kiyon ke her shaks isay hi pasand kerta hai aur chahta hai dosray bhi is ki perwah kerein.

Is ke khiyal me khalis siyasi nukta nazr se fitri zindagi ki khas khubiyan do (2) hain

  1. infaradi azadi
  2. mulikat ka haq

is ka falsafa chu-ke angreezi qoum ki tabiyat aur mizaj ke aen mutabik tha is lie wo in me bohat ziyadah maqbool howa is me na to muntaqi barikiyan hain aur na zehan ko uljhanay wali pechidgiyan balke wo chand thos asolo ka majmo-aa hai jinhe is ne is andaz se samajhanay ki koshish ki hai ke wo logon ke zehan nasheen ho sakay is ne her cheez me aqal saleem ko miyar thehraya hai.

Is ka siyasi falsafay se dosray mufakir khasay mutasir howay maslan Montesquieu -ko is ka ye taswur bohat ziyadah pasand aya ke muqanan aur intazamiya ke akhtiyarat ko bilkul alehdah rakha jae. Roso ke falsafay pe bhi is ka asar nazar ata hai in dono azeem mufakiron aur in fransicyon ke zarye jinhon ne shumali America me bartanwi no-abadiyon ki jang azadi me no-abadiyo ke logo ka sath diya. Riyasat hay America ke dastur per bhi is falsafay ka asar para. Is falsafay ne france ke 1789 ke is azem-ul-shan aur ehad afreen inqalab ke lay me zabardast madad di. Jis ne saray Europe ko aur is ke siyasi aur mashi nizam ko bilkul ta daba la ker ke rakh diya. Lock dar-haqiqat  inteha pasand na tha. balkay wo is inqalab ka hami tha. jis ke zarye iqtadar matusast  tabqay ke hath me ae aur dastur ya mehdod badshahat qaem howa. Is liye is ne shan-dar inqalab ki pur-zor himayat ki. Wo jamhoriyat ka pur-sitar tha. wo samajh aur hukumat me  huryat pasandi lana chahta tha. is ke falsafay me humay roso ki jamhoriyat nahi milti wo logon ko apnay numainday muntakhib kernay ke haq deta hai lakin is ka haq nahi deta ke wo hukumat ke kaamon me her waqt mudakhlat kerein aur apni marzi ke mutabik hukumat ki policy murtab kerein. Log hukumat ke mamlon me sirf is waqt dakhal de saktay hain jab in ki arzo-on ko pamal kernay lagay aur jab qanon ki hukumat na rahe.

Wo pehla afadiyat pasand mufakir thaw o musarat aur clift ko tamam insani amal ka sir chashma tehrata hai is ke nazdeek akhlaq musarat hai alam giran aur daimi qawanin se mutabiqat ka naam hai.