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Montesquieu was born on 18 January 1689. He was belonged from a noble family which is live in France, Montesquieu was such a big philosopher of 18th century. Montesquieu left this world on February 1755. In this page you will find and read montesquieu books written.

Montesquieu ka Siyasi Falsafa

(Montesquieu Biography)

 

Montesquieu books

  • the political theory of montesquieu
  • persian letters
  • the spirit of the laws

Atharwen sadi ki roshan khayali or huryat pasandi se mutasir ho kar france me sab se pehle jis siasi mufakir ne apne siasi nazaryat ko muratab surat me paish kya. Wo Montesquieu tha us ki kitab ka nam,”Roh Kanon” tha wo 1689 me paida hua or 1755 me 66 sal ki umar me wafat pai. Wo tarikh or adab ka bhi zabardast aalim tha. Us ne apni dosri kitab lettres person ke zarye France ke mazhabi, siasi or samaji adaron pr zabardast tanzia hamle kiye us ne Europe ke dosre mulkon ki diahat ki. Wahan ke adaron or siasi halat ka ghor se mutala kiya. Wo englistan me 2 sal tak mukim raha or wahan ke mashor-o-aham siasat danon se gehra rabo zabt rakha. Wo angrezi tarze haqumat, angrezi siasi nizam or angrezi nazarya azadi se had darja mutasir tha. Sath hi sath use kadim romi shehanshahiyt ki tarikh or siast se gehri dil chaspi or wabstagi thi. chunancha us ne romiyon ki azmat or unke urojo zawal pr phalsuphyana andaz me ek mkala likha kadim romi tarikh or angrezi adaron ki bunyad pr us ne apne siasi nazarye kaim kye or unhen apni eham tarin tasnif ‘Roh Kanon’ me dunya ke samne paish kya. Us ki ye tasnif boht zyada maqbol hui or 2 sal ke andar us ke 22 audition nikal gaye.

Us ki tasnifon or tehriron ko us ke mulk ki haqumat ne napasand kya. Q k wo azad khayali or huryat pasandi ka alambardar tha or istabdad ka shaded mukhalif or sath hi sath wo klesa ke iktadar ka bhi mukhalif tha. Is waja se use apni tasanif ko dosre mulkon me shaa karana para. Us ke zamane me france ke siasi halat had darja naguftaba the. Siasi or samaji kharabion ki had or inteha nahi reh gai thi har mufakir islah ki zabardast zarorat mehsos karta tha. Roh kanon, me us ne ek mukamal or thos siasi falsafa paish kya jo siasi aslah ke talibgaron ke liye sabak aamoz tha or almi zok rakhne walon ke lye mashaele hidayat ka kam deta tha. Us ka andaze bayan or tarze tehrir dil nashin tha.

Is ke bad wo siasi zindagi ki nashonuma se behas karta hai. Roh kanon me insan ki kadim zindagi ko asal sorat me paish kya gya hai pehle insane hewanon ki tarha rehta tha. us ke sare afaal ki muhrik jan ki salamti ya tahafuz ka khayal or jibli khawahishen thin. Or us ki puri zindagi tamam tar un kanon ke mateht thi, jo fitrat har jan dar makhloq ko sikhati hai lekin jab khandan bane or choti choti bastion me rehne lage to phir kanon bananay ki zarorat shidat se mehsos hui. Us waqt se kanon ki 3 kismen ho gain ek to wo jo qabilon ke bahami bertao ke bare me tha, jinhen bainul akwami kanon ki bunyad kaha jata hai dosre wo jo hukmaranon or mehkumon ke haquq or fraiz batate the inhen siasi kanon kaha jata hai or tisri wo ke jin ka maqsad afrad ke bahimi talukat or jurmo saza ke masle teh karna the. Inhen shehri kanon kaha jasakta hai. Kanon ke nashonuma ki ye sorat paish kar ke Montesquieu ne samaji moahide ki zarorat ko khatam kar diya. Is tarha us ne rawakion ke kanon fitrat ke nazarye ko bilkul bekar kar diya. Is ka asal mansha kanon ki nashonuma ke dikhane se ye tha ke kanon insane ki sirat or tarz moashrat ke mutabik banae jate hain. Kisi kanon ko usi waqt sahi tor se samjha ja sakta hai ke jab uske bananay walon ko us mulk ke bashindon ki sirat, tarze moashrat, zehniyat or un ke qomi mijaz se puri waqfiyat ho

Us ke nazdek adaron or dastor ke lehaz se hakumat ki 3 kismain hain (1)majuriyat jis me iktadar qom ke numaindon ya sari qom ke hath me hota hai (2) mutalik aiaenan badshahat ki jis me shahi iktadar ghair mehdod hota hai or pore tor se badsha ke hath me hota hai or (3) badshaht k jis me agarcha iktadar ka malik badsha hota hai lekin kanon ka pura lehaz rakhta hai.

Us ne jamhuriyat ki bhi do kismain karar din. Ashrafi jamuriyat or khalis jamuriyat. Is tarha se us ke khayal me amlan hakumat ki char (4) kismain hain. Hakumat ke in charon tarikon ka daromadar insani sirat ki char khususiyat pr hai hunar parasti yani hubul watni or musawat, aetadal pasandi, ezat ki khawahish or khof.jamhuriyat ki jan ya roh hunae parasti hai. Ashrafi jamuriyat ki aetadal pasandi, badshahat ki ezat ki khawahish or ezat parasti.

Montesquieu kai sal tak englistan me raha. Us ne wahan ki siasi zindagi or siasi nizam ka bare zoko shok se mutala kya. Us ke zamane me jitni zyada azadi angrazon ko hasil thi, utni kisi dosre european qom ko hasil na thi. Is waja se us ne infradi azadi ke tahafuz ke liye jo tadbiren sochien wo bari had tak angrezi dastore se makhaz thin is ke bawajod us ka nukhtae nazar angrezi falsafon se or mufakiron se bari had tak mukhtalif hai. Us ne azadi ki do kismain kiye (1) siasi azadi (2) shehri azadi. Shehri azadi ko us ne sirf gulami ki zid karar diya or us pr koi khas behas nahi ki wo siasi azadi ko boht bari nemat samjhta hai or ye us ke nazdik sawae jamhuri hakumat or kisi tarze hakumat me aam logon ko hasil nahi. Dosre francy huriyat pasandon ki tarha use apne mulk ki hakumat se sab se bari shikayat ye thi k wo azadi ki sab se bari dushman hai. Us ke nazdik siasi azadi ke maini hain ke siwa in baton ke ke jin ki kanon ne mumanat ki ho. Dosre sare mamlon me insan ko apni marzi pr chalne ki puri azadi hasil ho. Adalten puri tor se intazamiyan ke asar or dabao se azad hon, or aam logon ya shehrion ko hakumat ki zyadtiyon or chera dastiyon se bachaen, ba-ilfaz digar aesi hakumat ho jo kanon ki bunyad pr kaim ho or jis me kanon ki amal dari ho.

Montesquieu ka ek aham nazarya ye bhi hai k nazarye mushahide ki bunyad pr kaim ki jaen or insani zindagi ko khawah makhawah ya ghasit kar kisi maksos siasi falsafe ke tabah na kya jae. Bal ke falsafe ki bunyad tarikh or wakiyat pr honi chahye or us ki roshni me siasi muzahir ko samjhne or samjhane ki koshish ki jae. us ne zyada tar mushahide hi se kam liya. Us ke pas ek aqli mayar hai or ek nasbul aein, jise wo fitrat se tabir karta hai. Us ke nazdik qom ki fitrat se murad wo jazbat or rujhanat hain jinhain koi qom apni zindagi me ujagar karne ki koshish karti hai or jab tak wo is me kamyab na ho use haqiqy musarrat nasib nahi hoti.