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Plato was the founder of western philosophy and science. He was born and died in Athens. Aristotle was his student and Socrates was his teacher. He established his own school of philosophy. He was one of the most dazzling writer in the western literary tradition. He told how philosophy should be conceived and what is its scope and ambitions. He worked on planet, Mathematics, and politics also. In this page you will find and read Plato Biography in hindirRoman.
 

Aflatoon ka siyasi falsafa
(Plato Biography)

 

Plato Books list

  • know thyself
  • from the phaedrus
  • selected myths
  • plato reader
  • meno and other dialogues
  • plato on poetry
  • early socratic dialogues
  • the republic and other works
  • the republic
  • crito
  • symposium
  • timaeus
  • gorgias
  • protagoras
  • laws
  • charmides
  • plato's sophist
  • statesman

Aflatoon  younan ki mash’hor jamhori shehri mumlikat athens ke ek khush hal aur ba-asar gharanay me paida howay.. is ne mardja taleem hasil ki jis me music ko khas ehmiyat hasil thi aur music me na sirf fun music shamil tha balkay tulba ko nazein hifz kerni parti thihomerki ki nazmein khas tor per parhai jati thi aur chu-ke in nazmon ke zarye mazhabi aur akhlaki asolon ki taleem di jati thi is liye is ke aur dosray tulba ke akhlak ko sanwarnay aur is ki shakhsiyat ki tamer me khas tor se asar andaz haway.

Jawani me socrates ke halkay me shamil hogaya is ne mukhtalif uloom aur fanon ka mutalla is ki shagirdi me kiya aur is ke siyasi falsafay se bohat ziyadah mutasir howa. Shoru me is ka rujhan athens ki mumlikat ke siyasi uhdon  par faiz honay ka tha lakin jab is ke mehbob ustad socrates ko athens ke jamhuriyat pasandon ne mot ke ghat utar diya to wo jamhuriyat se bilkul bezar hogaya aur is ki zindagi ka sara naksha badal gaya ab is ne sarkari mulazmat kernay ke bajae athens ko zehni intashar aur siyasi zawal se bachana apni zindagi ka khas maqsad qarar diya. Is tarah wo siyasi mufakir ki hasiyat se siyasat ke medaan me dakhil howa. Siyasi ikhtiyar-o-iqtadar ki jang me wo jamhuriyat pasandon ke muqablay me dolat mandon ka hami tha kiyon-ke socrates ki mout ke bad wo jamhuriyat aur jamhuriyat pasandon ka shaded tareen dushman hogaya tha.

Is ne Italy aur Sicily ki siyahat ke doran is ka rabt-o-zabt taran tom ki fisa gorsi no abadi ke logo se barha aur isi waja se wo riyazi ki ehmiyat ka bohat ziyadah qail hogaya khas ker akledas ke yaqeeni qawaidon aur tarikon ka bohat ziyadah qail tha is ka khayal tha ke gar hum aqlades  me suchai tak pohanch saktay hain to siyasiyat me kiyon nahi pohanch saktay.

Issi safar-o-siyaahat ke doran wo siracusa ke zalim farma rawadiyoni saaien awal se mila.. wo aflatoon se bohat ziyadah mutasir howa. Wo bara ilm dost tha aur be-panah salahiyaton ka malik tha. Aflatoon ke nazdik isi kisam ki salahiyaton ka malik badsha falsafi badsha hosakta tha is liye is ne shah adeel ke faraiz batanay shoru ker diye lakin bohat jald wo (aflatoon) badsha ki nazron se gir gaya aur is ne isay ghulam ki tarah farokht ker diya. Aflatoon ba hazar kharabi fidya de ker azadi hasil ker saka aur mayoos ho ker athens wapas chala aya. Wahan pohanch ker is ne almi majlis ya accadmy ki bunyad dali. Wo diuni saien awal ke janashin diuni saies do-em se bohat mutasir tha. Ur isay puri umeed thi ke wo is ki tasihaton per karband  hoga lehaza is ki dawat per wo barha siracusa gaya ta ke nae badsha ko taleem de sakay aur is ki tarbiyat ker sakay.lakin is bar bhi isay mayousi hath lagi is liye ke badsha ne na to is ki nasihaton per kan dhara aur na amal pera howa. Aflatoon ne apnay ko darbari siyasat ke liye bilkul na ehal paya aur had darja mayos aur dil bardshta ho ker wapas chala aya. 5 saal ke waqfay ke bad wo dobarah akhri koshish kernay gaya lakin is bar bhi isay kamyabi na mili aur wo wapas agaya  337 qabal masi me is ka intakal hogaya

Zindagi ke akhri dor me isay bari shuhrat hasil hoi, is ki qaim kerdah acadmy bohat waqae almi majlis aur darus gah samjhi janay lagi jis tarah se wo khud ek namwar ustad ka namwar shagird howa isi tarah se is ka bhi namwar shagird arsto (Aristotle) howa.
Aflatoon ka siyasi falsafa hasb-e-zael tasnefon me milta hai

  1. Riyasat
  2. Madtabar
  3. Qano

In teenon me sab se ziyadah shuhrat riyasat ke hissay me ai ye kitab is ne is waqt tasnef ki ke jab is ki shuhrat shabab per thi. Is me is ne misali mumlikat ka tasawur paish kiya. Isay mehaz siyasi tasanef nahi kaha jasakta is liye ke is me ja baja bohat se akhlaki, tasfiyana, mazhabi, nafsiyati aur taarikhi nazarye bhi biyan kiye gae hain aur in sab ko mila ker puri zindagi ka nizam ya miyar-e-amal paish kiya gaya hai isay siyasi tasanef is liye kaha jata hai ke yonan qadeem me ikhlaki, falsafa, mazhab aur taleem sab hi ke pehlo per zor diya jata tha aur in ko ile-e-siyasiyat kaha jata tha.

Dosri tasanef “madtabar” “Riyasat” se mukhtasar hai is ka darja riyasat se paast aur qanoon se barter hai is me is ne jamhoriyat me hukumat ki khobiyan, muhafizo ki shaksi hukumat ke muqablay ginai hai aur qanoni hukumat ko sab se ziyadah kar-amad aur qabil-e-amal nizam-e- hukumat tehraya hai.

Qanoon me is ke khiyalat ki tabdeeli mumkin hojati hai. Ye is ne is waqt likhi hai jab wo saraquiz ke tajarbon ki roshni me is natijay per pohancha ke na-qas society me go na go pabandiyon ki zarorat kiyon lahak hoti hai aur amli lehaz se achi hukumat kisay kaha ja sakta hai.

Riyasat me is ne apnay bunyadi nazaryon aura solon ko biyan kiya aur inhe dalilon aur misalon se waza kiya is ke sath sath ye haqqiqat bhi munkashaf hojati hai ke Riyasat me bunyadi asolon ko bunyadi azaz-o-maqasad ke ird gird qaid kiya gaya hai. Agar is asolon ko achi tarah zehan nashen ker liya jae to phir aflatoon ke nazaryat asani se samajh me ajatay hain.

Riyasat ke do naam hai,

  1. Riyasat
  2. Tehkik-e-adal

Ruyasat se murad aam siyasi dastur se hai. Dastur se murad wo nizam hai jis se afrad mil jul ker samaj ki tashkeel kertay hain lakin her insani tanzeem siyasi nahi hoti aur na he  samaj mumlikat hota hai. Riyasat me aflatoon siyasi tanzem ki mahiyat ko maloom kerta hai aur is se behas kerta hai ke mumlikat ke ajza-e-tarkibi kiya hai. Yahi is ke siyasi falsafay ka mehwar hai. 

Aflatoon ke nazdeek ustad ya mu-alim ka ye farz hai ke wo ilm ki roshni ko aesi jaga rakh de ke shagird ya talib ilmon ki nazar is per parau aur isi ke sath is ka ye bhi farz hai ke wo talib ilmon ke liye aesi suhbat muhaya keray aur in ke jazbat ki perwarish aesay khayalat per keray jo un ki zehni nash-o-numa ke liye intahai sud-mand ho. Is surat me insane apni fitri aur zehni salahiyaton ko kaam me la sakta hai. Aur apni shaksiyat ko kamal ke darjay tak ponhacha sakta hai. Is ka fasab-e-taleem athens aur sparter dono ke tarz-e-taleem ka imtiyaz hai. Athens ka nizam-e-taleem nisbatan behtar tha lakin is me mumlikat ke mutalik dakhal nahi tha aur ala taleem sirf dolat mando hi ke lie mumkin thi ber aks is ke spartar me taleem exercise aur fauji tarbiyat tak mehdod thi is me zehni tabiyat ka koi saman na tha lakin taleem puray tor se mumlikat ke zim’may thi. Aflatoon ne athens ki taleemi nisab me tabdelliyan aur tarmemein ker ke isay apni misali mumlikat ke liye ikhtiyar kiya aur taleem ko mumlikat ki khas zimadari qarar diya.

Athens me taleem ki ibtada exercise, music aur adab se hoti thi. Aflatoon ne adab ko music me shamil ker ke sirf do hi mazmoon rakhay. Exercise se murad jismani nasho-numa thi is me is ne ghiza aur hifzan-e-sehat ke asolon ki taleem ka izafa ker ke isay aur ziyadah mukamal ker diya. Music! Is se murad zehen aur jazbat ki wo tarbiyat thi jo achi awaz khubsurat aur haseen-o-jameel shaklon ko dekhnay aur achay khayalaton se hasil hoti hai. Is ke nazdeek music me songs, dance , sangtarshi aur poems ke ala namonon ka mutalla sab hi ajatay hain.is me music aur exercise ke zarye insani ikhlak ko sanwarna chaha. Is ke khayal me inhi dono ke zarye insani serat ya kirdar ko behtar banaya ja sakta hai. Exercise se insane ko apnay jism per itna qabo hasil hojata hai ke wo is ki rooh ke liye mozo ban ghar ban sakay. Music se is ke jazbat me tawazan aur mizaj me wo etadal paida hojata hai jo aqal per khuwaishon ko galib nahi anay deta aur insane ke nukta nazar ko sahi aur mutawazan aur is ke khiyalat ko durust rakhta hai. Taleem detay waqt ustad ko is ka khas tor per khayal rakhna chaye ke tulba ke ilm me koi aesi baat na ae jo inhe sachai aur neki ke siwa kisi dosri taraf mail keray ya in ke mazak ko bigaray. Ye taleem 17, 18 year old tabil ilmon ke honi chaye.

Yonan ki sari shehri mumlikat yake bad digar se Sikander–E-Azaam ki saltanat ka jaz ban gai aur aflatton ki taleem jis me sadiyon ka tajurba kaam me laya gaya tha bilkul be-kar sabit hoi. Aflatoon ne waqiat aur tajuraon ki hudud se agay barh ker apnay siyasi falsafay ki bunyad nafs insani ko banaya aur ye falsafa shehri mumlikat se ziyadah pa-edar nikla.qaroon-e-wasta ke Europe ke falsafay per is ki kitab qanon ka bohat gehra asar para.

Aflatoon ne mumlikat ki bunyad ikhlaq aur mazhab per rakhi is ne misali mumlikat me teen tabqon ki taqseem ki. Qaroon-e-wasta ke mazhabi aur mashi nizam me wohi taqseem humay milti hai. Qaroon-e-wsta ke idaron ka aflatoon ki tasanef “Riyasat” aur “Qannon” ki taleem se mushaba hona aflatoon ke wajdan-e-sahi aur nazaryon ki sheet ki dalil hai. Aur is ke falsafay ko haq bajanib sabit kerta hai.aflatoon apnay falsafay ko apnay mahool tak mehdod nahi rakhta bal-kay apni hashan-e-taswur se sadiyon bad anay wali naslon ki zindagi dekh leta hai.

Siyasiyat ki tarikh me aflatoon ki sab se eham aur qabil-e-qadar yadgar is ki misali mumlikat hai.is ki taqeed sir saint augistain aur sir tams moor ne ki aur apni misali mumlikaton ka khaka dunya ke samnay paish kiya. Europe me nisha-tus-saniya ke bad se aflatoon ki misali mumlikat aeniyat pasandon ke liye rehnuma ban gai. Russia aur is bad hangle ne europian siyasi falsafa me isay puri tarah samo diya aur wo is tarah apnai gai ke wo waqai sarmaya hayat kahi ja sakti hai. Is ka tayar kiya howa yonani majmo-aa qawanin aur nazam-e-taleem is ki dosri eham yadgarein hai. Is ke qanon ke majmo-aa se romi qanon waa puri tarah se mustafeed howay.