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Thomas Hill Green was an western, English philosopher. He was the member of the British Idealism movement. Through the university he was involved in local politics and also by the temperance societies and the local oxford liberal association. His principal writing are essay on Christian dogma (CD), the conversion of Paul, witness of god moral psychology , lecture on liberal legislation and freedom of contract and many more. In this page you will find and read Biography of Thomas Hill Green in Urdu Hindi Roman.

Thomas Hill Green ka Siyasi Falsafa

(Thomas Hill Green Biography)

 

England ka nam-war siyasi mufakir Thoms Hill Green 1836 me paida howa  wo oxford university  ke Balliol College me tarikh aklakiyat aur tarikh falsafana proffersor tha. 1878 me wo falsafay ka professor muqarar howa.1882 mein 46 saal ki umar mein iss ka intikaal ho gaya.
Is ki sar-garmiyan sirf dars-o-tadrees tak mehdod na thi balkay wo amli siyasiyat me bhi dil khol ker hissa leta rahata tha. wo liberal party ka sar-garam member tha.

Green 18th century ki aqliyat pasandi aur aur 19th century ki afadiyat pasandiaur tajarbiyat se had darja bezar tha. wo qadeem younani falsafay German aeniyat aur bartanwi libral azam  se mutasir tha lehaza is ke siyasi nazaryon se in ki chap milti hai. Aflatoon aur arasto ke nazarye se mutasir ho ker is ne ye rae qaem ki ke mumlikat ka khas maqasad ye hai ke is ke shehri achi zindagi basar kerein . wo is taswur se puri tarah mutafik tha ke insan siyasi hewan hai aur bagair mumlikat ke is ke liye achi zindagi guzarna mumkin nahi. Qanon jazbat per nahi balke aqal-e-insani per mubni hotay hain lakin wo aflatoon ke muqablay me arasto se is liye ziyadah mutasir tha ke arasto ke falsafay me fard ko ziyadah ehmiyat hasil thi. Aur is me isay mumlikat me zam nahi ker diya gaya tha.  wo arasto ke is nazarye  se bhi so fisadi (100%) mutafik tha  ke mumlikat ek jism nami ki mananad hai is ka khas maqsad  afrad ki falah aur behbod hai. Aur in me neki aur aosaf paida kerna hai . isi tarah isay arasto ka ye asol bhi bohat pasand aya ke mumlikat ke mamlat me afrad ko barh charh ker hissa lena chaye, is ka bunyadi khayal ye tha ke khodi samaji khodi hai. Yani insan samaji hewan hai. Aur wo is dunya me tan-tanha nahi reh sakta. Wo qadam qadam per dosraon ki madad aur tawun ka muhtaj rehta hai.
Hangel ki tarah wo bhi is ka qael tha ke asal chez aqal-e-insani hai ye takmeel ki muhtaj hai. Jo irtada ke hi zarye mumkin hai. Tarikh is ke daimi tasawur ka naam hai.mumlikat isi tasawur ke amli muzahir ka nam hai. Insan is waqt sahi mano me azad hota hai jab wo apnay ko is tasawur se puri tarah  hum-ahang ker le ke jo mumlikat ki shakal me mujasim hai. Hangel ki tarah wo bhi isay manta hai ke  her qoum ki makhsos ya juda-gana sapot hoti hai. Aur is ke apnay makhsos rasm-o-riwaj aur rawaitein hoti hain. aur apnay akhlaqi zabtein hotay hain. jin ko amlan qanon ka darja hsil hota hai. Lakin is ke nazdeek isay azadi nahi kaha ja sakta. Ke afrad ya shehri mumlikat ki bilkul be-ikhtiyar majhol be-dast depa shehriyon ki tarah ata-at kerin. Balkay in ko sar-garam aur muted shehriyon ki tarah mumlikat ke saray mamlon me dil-chaspi leni chaye..
Is ke nazdeek fard ki azadi ek musbat tasawur hai is ke ye mainay nahi ke her fard ko is ki azadi hasil hai aur wo apni marzi aur iraday se apni shakshiyat ki takmeel aur tamer keray. Wo mumlikat ko hama-gir iqtadar nahi deta. Is ke khayal me mumlikat ka farz hai ke wo dosri insani anjumanon ke haqoq ka ehtaram keray. Aur sab se ziyadah insaniyat ke haqoq ka ehtaram kere aur koi aesi bat na kerein jis se insaniyat ko kisi kisam ka nuksan pohanchay.
Is ke iqtadar-e-ala ke nazarye me enstin aur roso dono ke khiyalat amezish milti hai. iqtadar-e-ala mumlikat ki is bala-dast qowat ka nam hai ke jis me marzi-e-aama shamil hoti hai aur qanon iqtadar-e-ala ke ehkam ka name hai. Lakin is ki bunyad mumlikat aur is ki tazeri qowat per nahi balkay shehriyon ki puri jamat ki marzi-e-aama per hai.
Is ke nazdeek azadi ke mainay ye nahi ke insan man mani kernay lagay. Is ke mainay ye hai ke insan achay kaam keray, nafsani khuwaish ko pura kernay ya lalach ya khud garzi ke kamo ko azadi nahi kaha ja sakta. Insani iradah bunyadi tor per naek hota hai. Insane per koi akhlaqi pabandiyan aied hoti hai wo insane khud apni marzi se apnay upper aed kerta hai.. azadi do kisim ki hoti hain musbat azadi aur manfi azadi. Musbat azadi se murad hai insan achay kaam kerein.. ye azadi insan ki marzi, aqal, akhlaq aur qanono ke mahmo-aa ka naam hai. Manfi azadi se murad hai ke man-mani kerna yani khuahishat-e-nafsani per amal kernay ke hain. Green ke nazdeek azadi ka sahi mafhom ye hai ke insane na to dosray insanon ko iss ki azadi se mehrom keray aur na inhe apnay kisi fail se kisi kisim ka nuksan pohchae.. is ka matlab ye hai ke insan ko yaksan mowakay hasil hon aur insani falah aur behbod ke kaam kerein.. suchi azadi insan ko sirf mumlikat hi se hasil hosakti hai aur isay sirf fard hi hasil ker saktay hain. is musbat azadi ki infaradi hasiyat bhi hasil hai. Aur samaji bhi, is ki waja se fard aur mumlikat me agar kisi kisam ka ekhtalaf paida ho to  isay dor kiya ja sakta hai
Jang ke baray me is ka nazarya ye tha ke ye aslan buri hai lakin baz dafa aisay halat paida hojatay hai ke baghair is ke koi charah nahi rehta is mainay me ye zarori hai  jang ka hona is per dalalat kerta hai ke mutahrib ya jang kernay wali mumlikat ne apna irtaqa ya takmeel ki manzil nahi teh ki hai aur ye abhi na-mumkin hai aur is se bohat si khamiyan mojod hain. jang ko puri tor  pe ya sofi sadi jaez is liye nahi tehraya ja sakta ke wo insane ko azad zindagi ka bunyad haq ata nahi kerti. Ye akhlaki aetabar se is liye ghalat hai ke nabard azma sipahi humesha khushi khushi apni janein mulk ya mumlikat ki hifazat ke liye qurban nahi kertay. Is liye green ke nazdek kisi ko is ka haq nahi hasil hai ke wo azad zindagi ke haq ya ba-hasiyat ek azad fard ke is dunya me zindah rehnay ke haq ko tark ker de. Bila-shuba jang se hubul-watni esar jan’nisari aur daleri ke ala jazbat bhi afrad ya shehri me paida hotay hain lakin is ke sath sath jang insano me himat bhi paida kerti hai. Aur in me hewani jazbat paida kerti hai. Wo jarihana qowat ko bura samjhta hai kiyon-ke is ke waja se dunya me aman qaim nahi reh sakta.

Is ke nazaryon hi ke asar se khalis mashi mamlon me England ki hukumat ne dakhal diya mazdoron ki bhalai ke liye qanon banae aur ek had tak sarmayadaron aur bil-malkon ki chehrah dastiyon ka insdad kiya. Is ne mumlikat ke istabdal ki puri qowat ke sath mukhalifat ki aur afrad ya shehriyon ko ye haq ata kiya ke wo hukumat ki sakht gera aur jarehana policy ke khilalf ehtajaj ker saktay hain. aur khas suraton me is ke khilaf bagawat bhi ker saktay hain. wo mumlikat ko manzil ya maqsad nahi samajhta balkay isay sirf wasila ya zarya samjhta hai.